Similarities Between Human and Animal Communication
The real understanding of the washings and anointings is the following: they are denigrating, humiliating, designed to get control of you at your most vulnerable state by touching your naked body. There can be nothing spiritual in this kind of situation as it is debasing, horrific, and demeaning. To say they are spiritual in any way, shape of form just proves totally and conclusively that the technique to brainwash and program the person worked totally and completely.
similarities between animal sounds and human sounds
Representationalists of all sorts point out the limitations in thedifferent kinds of representational systems. Camp, who defends theclaim that maps have a rich syntactic structure, admits somelimitations: mental maps do not seem to be able to accommodate somefirst order thoughts such as non-specific existentially quantifiedpropositions or universally quantified propositions, or anysecond-order thoughts (Camp 2007). Like Camp, Bermúdez defendsthe position that, while animals can think, they cannot hold beliefsabout beliefs, but he denies that imagistic thought has syntacticstructure, and hence he concludes that animals are not logicalthinkers (Bermúdez 2003, 2009). Carruthers also argues that,while even insects have beliefs (Carruthers 2004), there is noevidence that any nonhuman species has metacognitive abilities(Carruthers 2008). Carruthers suggests that the evidence from animalbehavior supports the position that belief, like desire, comes indegrees (Carruthers 2008).
While the study of animal cognition is largely an empirical endeavor,the practice of science in this area relies on theoretical argumentsand assumptions — for example, on the nature of mind,communication, and rationality. If nonhuman animals don’t havebeliefs, and if all cognitive systems have beliefs, then animalswouldn’t be the proper subjects of cognitive studies. If animalsaren’t agents because their behavior isn’t caused by propositionalattitudes, and if all cognitive systems are agents, we get the sameconclusion. While there are arguments against animal minds, thecognitive scientists studying animals largely accept that animals areminded, cognitive systems. As demonstrated by the 2012 , many scientists also accept .
Similarities between humans and animals essay - …
Another argument Chomsky has offered against animal language is basedon the dissimilarity between animal communication systems and humanlanguage. He writes, “The question of whether other systems are‘like’ human language is a question about the usefulness of a certainmetaphor” (Chomsky 1980, 434), and he argues that the structuralprinciples, manner of use, and ontogenetic development of ape symboluse is so different from human language that any analogy between thetwo would be very weak. Those who defend the animal symboliccommunication system as language take Chomsky to task on this point,and stress the similarities between the two systems ofcommunication.
Similarities Between Dogs and Humans | from the …
One area of contention has to do with whether animals thatsuccessfully use some aspect of human language are using it qualanguage, or are instead engaged in symbolic communication. At leastthree different demarcations between language and other symboliccommunication systems have been offered. According to Noam Chomsky’soriginal linguistic program, to use language is to embody certainstructural principles, and all language users are able to produce apotentially infinite number of grammatical strings via recursiveembedding (Chomsky 1968). The linguistic anthropologist CharlesHockett identified up to seventeen design features that occur in everyhuman language, including semanticity, discreteness, and arbitrariness(Hockett 1977). More recently Hauser, Fitch, and Chomsky (2002) arguethat the mechanism that allows for recursive thinking is the centralcognitive requirement for language, and is a feature of humancommunication systems not found in other species. However, research on European starlings finds that we can train birds to discriminate a recursive grammar from among strings of starling sounds (Gentner et al. 2006), and that there are similarities between human language and birdsong along cognitive, neurological, genomic, and behavioral dimensions (Bolhuis, J.J. et al. 2010).
Similarities Between Dogs and Humans ..
Like humans, many species are social animals who, in addition tonavigating a physical world, must also navigate a social world. In the1970s it was suggested that in order to succeed in a competitivesocial world, individuals would benefit from having some understandingof the mind of others (Humphrey 1976, 1978), with Alison Jollysuggesting that knowing other minds helps members of big social groupscooperate (Jolly 1966). Humphrey wrote, “...I venture to suggestthat if a rat’s knowledge of the behavior of other rats were to belimited to everything which behaviorists have discovered about rats todate, the rat would show so little understanding of its fellows thatit would bungle disastrously every social interaction it engaged in;the prospects for a man similarly constrained would be still moredismal” (Humphrey 1978, 60). The idea here is that knowledge ofother minds can offer added value over knowing others’ behavioralpatterns.