Specific Responsibilities Of Middle Managers
Although , it began its institutionalization with Europe’s conquest of the world. For the first time ever, a person could board a ship in a land of people with skin of one color and disembark and see people with skins of markedly different colors. Also, since the people with non-white skin that Europeans encountered were always exploited, slaughtered, or dispossessed, their differing skin color became part of the abuse-justifying ideology of the conquerors. Racism reached its zenith in the USA, which in scale, intensity, and duration is . The racism always had an underlying economic rationale, which justified the genocide of Indians, enslavement of Africans, horrific treatment of East Asians, today’s agricultural labors of Latinos, and so on. When Europeans fought each other in the imperial age, they had a rather gentlemanly way of fighting and treating captured prisoners, but when the opponents were Indians, for instance, scalping them, making clothing from their skins, and the like was standard behavior. The “souvenirs” were in that they had white skin on them. That kind of behavior was evident from the , and during the USA’s theft of temperate North America, its . Intentionally onto the Indians was part of the British bag of tricks, and hunting Indians like animals was a favorite sport of both and .
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and noted that Eurasia was spread along an east-west axis, while Africa and the Americas were north-south, which made Old World diffusion easier, but that idea also has problems, as Fertile Crescent crops did not spread to East Asia due to rainfall timing differences (winter rains in the west and summer monsoons in the east). Mesoamerican and Andean civilizations had dramatic geographic limitations, which was their greatest contrast with Eurasian civilizations. However, like the migration of or the exchange when , it was easier for cultural innovations to spread along the same latitude, as they would move through similar biomes. North-south diffusion is far more difficult, as it moves through different biomes, such as tropical forests and . Eurasia's geography was more conducive to communicating innovations, which made it more cosmopolitan than sub-Saharan Africa or the Americas, which helped them technologically advance at a faster pace. Isolated peoples are usually culturally and technologically backward compared to nearby peoples who are more cosmopolitan, and people isolated by mountainous geography, such as those of the Scottish Highlands, Balkans, Appalachia, and Southeast Asia were relatively primitive compared to those around them. and are classic instances of isolated peoples keeping their cultures intact, which provided a window into the human past, but their cultures also did not "progress," which included their technology.
For several years before writing this essay, I have stated that the only inventor-oriented approach with a prayer is for an inventor with the goods (a viable prototype undoubtedly generating FE) to give it to a worthy group so that they can take it the rest of the way, past humanity’s inertia and any organized suppression activities that might be inflicted on the effort. I have never heard of the inventor with the goods willing to give it away, and that worthy group does not yet exist; my efforts could be seen as trying to help form it. Criticizing the inventor with the goods who is unwilling to give it away, when there is nobody worth giving it to, is unproductive.
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Anthropologists and primate researchers , but relatively recent scientific findings have disproven that notion. , and it is more sophisticated with great apes. It took a few million years after the human/chimp split for our ancestors to learn to , and that culture then spread widely in Africa. The , , and were probably all closely related and at least partly interdependent, but little seemed to change . Then the and possessed a larger brain, and new tools and behaviors are evident . The timeframes continually shrank between major events in the human journey. Only 200 thousand years later, and , and new behaviors are in evidence. Only 100 thousand years after that, anatomically modern humans appeared. Only 30 thousand years after that, about 170 kya, , probably due to necessity, where life once again was eked out on the margins, and those humans may have decorated their bodies. About 100 kya, innovation seems to have accelerated again, and by 75-60 kya there is evidence of . Needles and perhaps even arrowheads first appeared about 60 kya. There is no doubt among scientists that members of made those advances, and their artifacts provided evidence of increasing cultural and technical sophistication, which soon left Neanderthals and all other land animals far behind. About 75-70 kya, a , and there is controversy today whether that eruption was partly responsible for the that passed through not long afterward. What became today’s humanity seems to have nearly gone extinct at that bottleneck.
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Whatever the case may be, it appears clear that the population in Africa and Neanderthal population in Europe and the Middle East were isolated for tens of thousands of years, perhaps far more than 100,000 years, and humans used a toolkit like the Neanderthals’ until something happened between 70 and 50 kya. Just happened is a matter of great controversy, and in recent years, several disciplines have converged on the issue and are drawing a clearer picture today. Some key findings that shed light came from global DNA studies, linguistics partnering with evolutionary theory, and brain studies. In the past generation, as has been applied to many areas, a startling picture of the human journey has emerged. , probably for flexible power generation. For animals that reproduce sexually, the mother’s mitochondria are passed to her offspring, while virtually none comes from the father, if any. Geneticists can measure mutations in and approximate when two different animals shared a common ancestor, whether they belong to the same species or not. Similarly, regarding nuclear DNA, the produces a male mammal, and mutations in the Y chromosome can also be analyzed to estimate when two men shared the same ancestor. , but scientists have been aligning DNA results with fossil dates, which are considered more reliable, and have been resolving some limitations. But if the timing is suspect for such genetic analyses, far more confidence exists for descent relationships. Human DNA testing is a burgeoning business, used for everything from freeing to to examining the genetic heritage of the .