Explanations of Racial and Ethnic Inequality
Jim Crow Laws enforced racial laws that disadvantaged African Americans when it came to public accommodations. Rosa Parks defied the law and was arrested because she refused to give up her bus seat for a white man.
Racial Inequality After Racism - Foreign Affairs
There are large and important differences between blacks and whites in nearly every facet of life - earnings, unemployment, incarceration, health, and so on. This chapter contains three themes. First, relative to the 20th century, the significance of discrimination as an explanation for racial inequality across economic and social indicators has declined. Racial differences in social and economic outcomes are greatly reduced when one accounts for educational achievement; therefore, the new challenge is to understand the obstacles undermining the development of skill in black and Hispanic children in primary and secondary school. Second, analyzing ten large datasets that include children ranging in age from eight months old to seventeen years old, I demonstrate that the racial achievement gap is remarkably robust across time, samples, and particular assessments used. The gap does not exist in the first year of life, but black students fall behind quickly thereafter and observables cannot explain differences between racial groups after kindergarten. Third, we provide a brief history of efforts to close the achievement gap. There are several programs -- various early childhood interventions, more flexibility and stricter accountability for schools, data-driven instruction, smaller class sizes, certain student incentives, and bonuses for effective teachers to teach in high-need schools, which have a positive return on investment, but they cannot close the achievement gap in isolation. More promising are results from a handful of high-performing charter schools, which combine many of the investments above in a comprehensive framework and provide an "existence proof" -- demonstrating that a few simple investments can dramatically increase the achievement of even the poorest minority students. The challenge for the future is to take these examples to scale.
The womb is a miraculous tiny organ prior to pregnancy — not greater than a ; its sole purpose is to nurture and protect the fetus until it is expelled into the world. Though small, its impact is gigantic: the nature of its environment during the short period between conception and birth has lifelong consequences on the fetus. For instance, babies born prior to the 37 weeks of gestation or weighing less than 5.5 pounds will be disadvantaged for the rest of their lives in just about everything including their lifetime earnings. Fetuses exposed to toxins or infections will be irreparably damaged. The elephant in the room that we’ve been ignoring for the most part is that inequality — the big social issue of our time — begins amazingly during those 37 weeks.
On Views of Race and Inequality, Blacks and Whites Are ..
Approximately 5% of American women of reproductive age experience an unintended pregnancy annually, indicating a significant unmet need for contraception.
the state of race relations and racial inequality in the U.S
In social science, racial inequality is typically analyzed as "imbalances in the distribution of power, economic resources, and opportunities.".This essay has been submitted by a student.
Scholars of race tend to measure racial inequality in either ..
In 2000, after a decade of remarkable economic prosperity, the poverty rate among African Americans and Latinos taken together was still 2.6 times greater than that for white Americans. This disparity was stunning, yet it was the smallest difference in poverty rates between whites and others in more than three decades. And from 2001 to 2003, as the economy slowed, poverty rates for most communities of color increased more dramatically than they did for whites, widening the racial poverty gap. From 2004 to 2005, while the overall number of poor Americans declined by almost 1 million, to 37 million, poverty rates for most communities of color actually increased. Reductions in poverty do not inevitably close racial poverty gaps, nor do they reach all ethnic communities equally.
At a Loss for Words: Measuring Racial Inequality in America
Poor people of color are also increasingly more likely than whites to find themselves living in high-poverty neighborhoods with limited resources and limited options. An analysis by The Opportunity Agenda and the Poverty & Race Research Action Council found that while the percentage of Americans of all races living in high-poverty neighborhoods (those with 30 percent or more residents living in poverty) declined between 1960 and 2000, the racial gap grew considerably. Low-income Latino families were three times as likely as low-income white families to live in these neighborhoods in 1960, but 5.7 times as likely in 2000. Low-income blacks were 3.8 times more likely than poor whites to live in high-poverty neighborhoods in 1960, but 7.3 times more likely in 2000.
Racial inequality in the United States of America
Most people assume that Americans care more about equality of opportunity than equality of outcomes. New work by IPR sociologist and IPR social psychologist is testing this proposition. In contrast to the traditional view, Americans might now consider rising inequality as itself a threat to the “American Dream” of open and expanding opportunities. McCall and Richeson situate this perspective within a new “opportunity model” of beliefs about inequality. In this model, worries about the erosion of opportunity are partly attributed to rising economic inequality. This new frame of mind, unlike the traditional stance, should be open to supporting redistributive policies—but only if they lead to more opportunities in the labor market through, for example, limiting executive pay and lifting pay in the middle and bottom, or by taxing and spending for better schools or job training. Their study received funding from the and has two main components. The first is a media analysis of how American inequality has been discussed over the past 30 years. The second is a series of social psychology experiments designed to probe the conditions that provoke heightened concerns about inequality and support for policies designed to reduce it. In combining a media study with psychological experiments, McCall and Richeson hope to learn more about how conceptions of inequality, opportunity, and redistribution are intertwined in American culture.