race and ethnicity – Usa Online Essays
By measuring and tracking the racial composition of offenders and victims in crime news and comparing these with regional crime rates, news producers can improve the representativeness of their coverage. More nuanced attention is also needed to improve how – not just howmuch – crime reporting differs by race. Content analysis can help to identify racial disparities in the extent to which suspects are presented in non-individualized and threatening ways. In addition to these recommendations, media producers should address implicit racial bias using the tools described later in this report.
Race and ethnicity in the media essays
Disparities in police stops, in prosecutorial charging, and in bail and sentencing decisions reveal that implicit racial bias has penetrated all corners of the criminal justice system. Moreover, policies that are race-neutral on their surface – such as “hot spot” policing and certain risk assessment instruments – have targeted low-income people of color for heightened surveillance and punishment.
Two issues delayed independence: the fear expressed by the minority groups that they would be stifled by regional politics controlled by the larger ethnic groups, and the fear by the north that it would be dominated by the south. Greater regional autonomy assuaged the fear of northerners. Minority groups clamored for constitutional safeguards to protect them, or for the creation of separate states to ensure autonomy. The three big parties were controlled by the dominant groups, not trusted by leaders of minority groups. A commission of inquiry to look into minority grievances failed to decide in their favor, as the dominant political parties rejected the creation of additional states. The commission recommended that safeguards should be added into the constitution to allay their fears. These included the centralization of the police, the legal guarantee of rights, decentralization of the functions of the provincial authorities, and the establishment of a development board to advise on the physical development of the Niger Delta area. Nigeria attained independence on October 1, 1960, and became a Republic in 1963. There were many issues outstanding, but these were swept under the carpet; most notable among these were ethnicity, minority complaints, violence, and growing corruption. In addition, the British successfully manipulated the decolonization process to protect their vital economic interests, among other things. The foundation stones of the post-colonial economic system were laid in this period, with continuing export production and the withdrawal of foreign businesses from traditional fields (produce export, retail) into the more modern sectors of the economy. Here, the British partly cooperated with the emerging Nigerian comprador bourgeoisie. Gaining independence proved much easier than managing a modern nation-state, as Nigerians were to see in the first decade of self-rule.
The Race Card Project: Six-Word Essays : NPR
The second approach to measuring racial perceptions of crime draws on the General Social Survey (GSS). Produced by NORC at the University of Chicago, this long-running survey has asked respondents to rank various racial and ethnic groups on a scale ranging from “tend to be violence prone” to “tend not to be prone to violence.” This question was last asked in the year 2000.56) On a scale where 1 refers to not violence-prone and 7 refers to violence-prone, non-Hispanic whites on average rated whites at 3.70, Hispanics at 4.20, and blacks at 4.48.57) This represented a reduction in how much more violent whites rated blacks than their own race in 1990.58) This question, however, is not optimal: the wording may suggest biological racial undertones that the public increasingly disavows, and it does not allow a comparison to actual crime rates.59)
Race (human classification) - Wikipedia
Two dominant patterns emerge from public opinion surveys about criminal justice. First, Americans of all races are significantly more punitive than they once were, although punitive sentiment has been receding. Second, whites are and have been more punitive than African Americans and Latinos, even though they are less frequently victimized and are less concerned about crime. The racial gap in punitiveness persists even after noting important caveats about criminal justice polling methods.
Welcome to The Race Card Project! Send your six words on race
Judges are also more likely to sentence people of color than whites to prison and jail and to impose longer sentences, even after accounting for differences in crime severity, criminal history, and educational level.139) The race penalty is harshest for certain categories of people and offenses: it particularly affects men and the young, and is more pronounced for less serious offenses.140)