Psychology Attitude Change and Persuasion … | Essay
Thought control truly represents the dark side of social influence, as it combines compliance, persuasion, and propaganda tactics into a powerfully insidious form of coercive manipulation that robs an individual of his original identity and replaces it with another that the individual would not have freely chosen of his own accord. Thought control requires isolation of the individual from his normal social references, and is therefore best accomplished in a separatist group such as a cult. (For further information about cults, please refer to the page.)
Social Psychology: Attitudes and Persuasion Essay …
Even when attitudes are specific, strong, and highly accessible, they do not always predict behavior because the link between attitudes and behavior is not a direct one. Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen (1975) developed the theory of reasoned action to help explain the attitude-behavior relationship. Ajzen (1991) later updated this theory and renamed it the theory of planned behavior. According to the theory of planned behavior, the best predictor of behavior is a person’s intention to engage in that behavior. Behavioral intention is determined by three things: attitude toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Attitudes do not directly influence behavior. Instead, attitudes influence behavioral intention. Behavioral intention is also affected by subjective norms—a person’s beliefs about whether others will approve or disapprove of the behavior. A final determinant of behavioral intention is perceived behavioral control—a person’s perception of how easy or difficult it is to perform the behavior.
Researchers have also recently discovered that attitudes can be explicit or implicit (e.g., Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000). Explicit attitudes are attitudes of which we are consciously aware and can easily report. Implicit attitudes are attitudes that exist outside of conscious awareness or conscious control. People can have explicit and implicit attitudes toward the same attitude object. For example, a white individual might have a positive explicit attitude toward African Americans. He or she might consciously attempt to treat people of all races equally. However, he or she might experience negative emotions in the presence of African Americans, which would indicate that the person has a negative implicit attitude toward African Americans. Research on implicit attitudes has only just begun, so we have a lot to learn about how these attitudes develop and change. The research and theory reviewed in the remainder of this chapter are focused primarily on explicit attitudes.
Psychology of Persuasion and Social Influence - Verywell
Early theories assumed that attitude change was a thoughtful process. They maintained that people carefully considered the arguments presented in a persuasive message. When the arguments were strong, people’s attitudes became more favorable to the advocated position. When the arguments were not strong, people’s attitudes remained the same (or perhaps became less favorable). Contemporary theories, on the other hand, assume that people do not have to consider carefully the arguments in order for their attitudes to change. For example, people may adopt the position advocated in a persuasive message because the source is a trusted expert or simply because they are in a good mood. Two of the most popular contemporary theories of persuasion are the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) and the heuristic-systematic model (HSM). These two theories suggest that some processes of attitude change require a great deal of cognitive effort, whereas other processes require relatively little mental effort. These theories also specify when attitudes are likely to be changed by high-effort or low-effort processes and the consequences of such processes. The ELM and HSM are similar in many respects and can be used to explain the same research findings. To avoid confusion, this chapter will focus solely on the ELM (see Chaiken, Liberman, & Eagly, 1989, for more information on the HSM).
Psychology of Persuasion and Social ..
- This fascinating research identifies some of us as possessing a "fixed" mindset about attitudes (they can't be changed) and some of us possessing a "flexible" mindset (attitudes are changeable). Surprisingly, some of those with a fixed mindset still try to change others' attitudes. This research apparently unraveled the difference between those with a fixed mindset who give up on and those who pursue persuasion. Those with a fixed mindset who believe persuasion is an opportunity to stand up for their beliefs still make the attempt. On the other hand, those who believe persuasion is about trying to change someone's mind don't pursue it because they believe it would be futile. It explains a little bit of what we see on social media.
Discuss the relationship between persuasion and attitude change …
Thus, Petty and Cacioppo theorized that there are two alternate “routes” to persuasion. The central route involves carefully thinking about the arguments presented in a persuasive message. The peripheral route is less effortful. It occurs when people rely on simple cues to judge the merits of the message. Imagine that you need to buy a car. You see a television commercial in which a famous actor shares several reasons why he loves his new Ford Mustang. If you decide to buy the same model because you carefully consider the actor’s reasons (e.g., the Mustang has a powerful V8 engine, a 5-year/60,000 mile warranty, and reclining front buckets seats) and are convinced that they are good ones, you are following the central route. If you decide to buy the car simply because you like the actor, you are following the peripheral route. In short, attitude change can result from careful consideration of the information provided in a persuasive message (central route), or it can result from little or no thought about the information provided (peripheral route).