Free healthy lifestyle papers, essays, and research papers.
Self-Management / Develop Personal Skills refers to the support of self-management in coping with a disease but also to the development of personal skills for health and wellness. The arena for action in this expanded notion of self-management includes strategies in the community as well as in the health system.
In population health promotion, supporting personal and social development of individuals and groups is done in part by providing information and enhancing life skills. It increases options available for people to exercise more control over their health and their environments. It includes but goes beyond traditional health education messages, such as those dealing with smoking, nutrition and physical activity. While traditional health education programs are important, by themselves these initiatives often have limited impact on health behaviours and/or long-term health status and therefore must be broadened to include consideration of the determinants of health.
Health Promotion: Smoking Cessation Research Paper …
The first development that was critical in making taxation an essential tool of current international anti-smoking efforts is the elaboration of a new body of knowledge on tobacco taxes by North American and European health economists from the 1970s onwards. As this section shows, this knowledge transformed the way taxation was conceptualised among public health and tobacco control experts.
This article addresses the increasing influence of economic rationalities in global health over the past 30 years by examining the genealogy of one economic strategy – taxation – that has become central to international anti-smoking initiatives in the global South. It argues that this genealogy sits uncomfortably with the usual story about economics and global health, which reduces the economisation of international health to neoliberal structural adjustment policies aimed at stabilisation, liberalisation and privatisation and laments their detrimental effect on health. While not disputing these policies’ importance and damaging impact, the genealogy of tobacco taxes outlined in this article shows that the economisation of global health is not only about neoliberal structural adjustment policies but also about sin taxes, market failures and health economics. By stressing how changes in health like the global South's epidemiological transition can impact on economics and how beneficial taxation can be for health, it also shows that the relation between economics and health is not always unidirectional and detrimental to the latter. In doing so, the article contributes to the critique of the often mechanical use of neo-liberalism to explicate change and calls for other stories about the economisation of global health to be told.
Health Promotion Essay On Smoking - …
First of all, this genealogy shows that one cannot reduce the economisation of global health to neoliberal structural adjustment policies, as the standard story tends to do. Indeed, tobacco taxes are not a structural adjustment policy aimed at liberalisation, stabilisation and privatisation, but a public health policy aimed at reducing tobacco consumption and the growing burden of NCDs associated with it, on a par with indoor smoking bans and anti-smoking health education. Furthermore, tobacco taxes have a different genealogy than structural adjustment policies. In particular, they have not been made possible by the neoliberal counter-revolution in development economics, but by the emergence of health economics. These are two different projects developed by different people. Articulated by thinkers associated with the networks centred about the Mont Pèlerin Society, the neoliberal critique of development economics was a political project that sought to transform international development by rolling back the state and embracing free trade and markets. In contrast, health economics was a hybrid, mostly applied field of research free of any overriding political agenda where academic economists coming from industrial organisation, public policy and labour economics sought to empirically explore health-related issues like the organisation of the health-care industry, the cost-effectiveness of public health interventions and the demand function for health. Importantly, the genealogy of tobacco taxes outlined in this article shows that, while certainly not unheard of, the desire to roll back the state and the enthusiasm for markets that characterised the neoliberal counter-revolution in development economics had little resonance within health economics. If anything, most health economists thought that health was characterised by uncertainties, information failures and externalities that did not necessarily sit well with the market model and often had to be corrected through government action (, chapter 6). This way of thinking was even more marked for tobacco, with virtually all health economists concurring that there was market failure in relation to smoking and a need for government interventions like tobacco taxes (, chapter 7).
Health Promotion In this reflection essay I …
The Bank's efforts to promote and disseminate knowledge on tobacco taxation did not stop with the release of these two publications but continued until 2005 through a multiplicity of activities organised by HNP economists Aida Yurekli and Joy de Beyer (). First, the Bank sent representatives to the FCTC negotiations to comment on economic issues including taxation. Second, the Bank distributed over 17 000 copies of Curbing the Epidemic in over 20 languages and ran a website dedicated to tobacco economics. Third, the Bank conducted over 60 seminars and workshops on the economics of tobacco in general and taxation in particular, which were held in developing countries and open to governmental officials, public health experts and tobacco control advocates. Fourth, the Bank drafted and published a manual on how to conduct economics analysis on tobacco control in developing country – the World Bank Economics of Tobacco Toolkit – with one whole chapter dedicated to taxation (, Tool 4). Fifth and finally, the Bank also commissioned research papers and notes on the economics of tobacco and taxation in over 25 developing countries.