Theories Of Gender Oppression Free Essays - StudyMode
According to social learning theorists, children are also influencedby what they observe in the world around them. This, again, makescountering gender socialisation difficult. For one, children's bookshave portrayed males and females in blatantly stereotypical ways: forinstance, males as adventurers and leaders, and females as helpers andfollowers. One way to address gender stereotyping in children's bookshas been to portray females in independent roles and males asnon-aggressive and nurturing (Renzetti & Curran 1992, 35). Somepublishers have attempted an alternative approach by making theircharacters, for instance, gender-neutral animals or genderlessimaginary creatures (like TV's Teletubbies). However, parents readingbooks with gender-neutral or genderless characters often undermine thepublishers' efforts by reading them to their children in ways thatdepict the characters as either feminine or masculine. According to Renzettiand Curran, parents labelled the overwhelming majority ofgender-neutral characters masculine whereas those characters that fitfeminine gender stereotypes (for instance, by being helpful andcaring) were labelled feminine (1992, 35). Socialising influences likethese are still thought to send implicit messages regarding howfemales and males should act and are expected to act shaping us intofeminine and masculine persons.
Theories About Gender and Communication | Assignment Essays
Moi has further argued that the sex/gender distinction is uselessgiven certain theoretical goals (1999, chapter 1). This is not to saythat it is utterly worthless; according to Moi, the sex/genderdistinction worked well to show that the historically prevalentbiological determinism was false. However, for her, the distinctiondoes no useful work “when it comes to producing a good theory ofsubjectivity” (1999, 6) and “a concrete, historicalunderstanding of what it means to be a woman (or a man) in a givensociety” (1999, 4–5). That is, the 1960s distinctionunderstood sex as fixed by biology without any cultural or historicaldimensions. This understanding, however, ignores lived experiencesand embodiment as aspects of womanhood (and manhood) by separating sexfrom gender and insisting that womanhood is to do with thelatter. Rather, embodiment must be included in one's theory that triesto figure out what it is to be a woman (or a man).
This entry first looked at feminist arguments against biologicaldeterminism and the claim that gender is socially constructed. Next,it examined feminist critiques of prevalent understandings of genderand sex, and the distinction itself. In response to these concerns,the final section looked at how a unified women's category could bearticulated for feminist political purposes and illustrated (at least)two things. First, that gender — or what it is to be awoman or a man — is still very much a live issue. Second, thatfeminists have not entirely given up the view that gender is aboutsocial factors and that it is (in some sense) distinct frombiological sex. The jury is still out on what the best, the mostuseful or (even) the correct definition of gender is. And somecontemporary feminists still find there to be value in the original1960s sex/gender distinction.
Gender Schema Theory And Stereotyping
The relationship of gender and linguistic behavior is a compelling topic which is getting more and more attention since it is closely related to gender studies.
Theories of Sex and Gender - GCSE Sociology - Marked …
This line of thought has been extremely influential in feministphilosophy. For instance, Young holds that Spelman hasdefinitively shown that gender realism is untenable (1997,13). Mikkola (2006) argues that this isn't so. The arguments Spelmanmakes do not undermine the idea that there is some characteristicfeature, experience, common condition or criterion that defineswomen's gender; they simply point out that some particular ways ofcashing out what defines womanhood are misguided. So, althoughSpelman is right to reject those accounts that falsely take thefeature that conditions white middle-class Western feminists' genderto condition women's gender in general, this leaves open thepossibility that women qua women do share something thatdefines their gender. (See also Haslanger [2000a] for a discussion ofwhy gender realism is not necessarily untenable, and Stoljar for a discussion of Mikkola's critique of Spelman.)
Theories related to gender discrimination essay
One may want to critique the three accounts outlined by rejectingthe particular details of each account. (For instance, see Spelman[1988, chapter 4] for a critique of the details of Chodorow'sview.) A more thoroughgoing critique has been levelled at the generalmetaphysical perspective of gender realism that underlies thesepositions. It has come under sustained attack on two grounds: first,that it fails to take into account racial, cultural and classdifferences between women (particularity argument); second, that itposits a normative ideal of womanhood (normativity argument).
Sociological theories of gender stratification essay
The emergence of these ideals temporarily displaced social disorganization theory, which stresses a rapidly changing environment as the cause of deviant behavior.