Gender Inequality Essays Conclusion - ko-ukr
A large number of vulnerability papers agree that assets and context promote vulnerability and barriers to adaptation for women. We found that most articles that analyse vulnerabilities at the local level use a female-headed household approach. The sampling is mostly random, and the analyses use the proportion of female-headed households to male-headed households. The greater vulnerability of female-headed households is shown in few studies (Cassidy and Barres ; Maponya and Mpandeli ; Safi et al. ). Different factors are identified to explain the greater vulnerability of female-headed households. Generally, female heads of household are found to have a lower level of education than male heads of household. The gender and level of education of the head of household are closely correlated, and are cited as a possible explanation for differences in vulnerability (Deressa et al. Below et al. ). Other studies argue that a lack of formal education and the social standing of female heads of household were found to limit access to credit (Below et al. ; Banerjee et al. ) and to increase therefore the female-headed households’ vulnerability. In some studies, female-headed households experience greater vulnerability because, in contrast to most male-headed households, they usually lack reliable, non-farm income (Eriksen et al. ; Antwi-Agyei et al. ). Female-headed households are also often on the edges of their community’s social network, which limits their engagement in resilient livelihood strategies and which was found to impact on the resilience of the entire household (Cassidy and Barres ). However, the existing evidence on the comparative vulnerability of female- and male-headed households is not sufficient to draw strong conclusions that one is worse-off or better-off than the other. In particular, the heterogeneity of the vulnerability context considered in the studies is a limiting factor for unambiguous and strong conclusions.
Gender inequality essay conclusion - …
The scale and number of local case studies are disproportionate when compared with the number of metadata analyses and reviews. The number of papers taking a multilevel approach is particularly low. Climate change policy is usually determined at the national level, while adaptation mostly takes place at the local level. Adaptation and vulnerabilities are known to be mostly local in nature, and the complexity of gender relations at the local level calls for more context-specific data, in order to draw solid conclusions for research, development and policy-making. Further efforts must be made to understand these parallel realities, as any climate change policy, plan or programme affecting natural resource management, agriculture production or the energy sector, will affect gendered access patterns, division of labour, health and income, and will therefore impact both vulnerabilities and gender relations.
Intersectionality in itself, as an account of themultiplicity of locations effecting individuals experiences, or asa study of the patterned variations in the identities individualsclaim for themselves regardless of those locations, cannot explaineither the sources of inequalities or their reproduction over time;intersectionality must be placed in the "institutional bases ofpower shaping race, class and gender" (Collins, 1997: 74).
Ethical Issues: Gender Inequality in the Workplace essay
Finding how gendered differences affect responses to climate change impacts is the rationale behind the integration of gender in some studies. The most common rationales include the following: higher rates of death among poor women and children due to air pollution caused by household fuel (Venkataraman et al. ); skipping meals and reducing food intake on a regular basis (Beaumier and Ford ); and socio-economic stresses and gendered health impacts (Dean and Stain ). The role of women in producing and providing food for their households in areas at high risk of climate variations and conflict was also mentioned as an underlying principle for the relevance of gender (Cherotich et al. ). The lack of women’s participation in development is an additional rationale for integrating gender analysis in the studies. Some studies justify the consideration of gender in climate change by citing the limitations on women’s participation in the implementation of adaptive strategies, e.g. due to their exclusion from access to land and water (Nation ). Other studies justify the inclusion of gender in more general ways, such as by emphasizing the need to gain a deeper understanding of issues that are critical to community members (Cassidy and Barres ), or the failure of previous interventions because of a lack of gender integration in their implementation (Nielsen et al. ). Few papers refer to women’s agency, active choices and engagement (Gabrielsson and Ramasar ; Jerneck and Olsson ). Inequality in general, and the gender aspects of inequality, are seldom addressed sufficiently in the case studies. Only a very few papers use equity and rights-based arguments when examining gender integration (e.g. Onta and Resurrección ).
Gender Inequality Essays Conclusion - VirtualMetrix
Pre-Revolution, Cuban women had tradition roles like any other Latin American countries such as social inequalities, gender gap, subordination and oppression, and wage differences.