Canadas Eugenics Movement Essay Examples | Kibin

In 1926, the American Eugenics Society was founded by Harry Crampton, Harry H.

Prenatal Screening, A Modern Form of Eugenics Essay

Despite the changed postwar attitude towards eugenics in the U.S. and some European countries, a few nations, notably, Canada and , maintained large-scale eugenics programs, including forced sterilization of mentally handicapped individuals, as well as other practices, until the 1970s. In the United States, sterilizations capped off in the 1960s, though the eugenics movement had largely lost most popular and political support by the end of the 1930s.

There are 3 main ways by which the methods of eugenics can be applied. They are:

The Controversy on Eugenics in the American Culture

“The new eugenics: bioethics has its own ideology hostile to genetics and accepts, on faith alone, the feasibility of creating social environments which can cure all problems.” Medical Post.

The research quoted in the book is taken mostly from members of the American Eugenics Society and other eugenics groups.

The idea of "genius" and "talent" is also considered by William Graham Sumner, a founder of the American Sociological Society (now called the American Sociological Association). He maintained that if the government did not meddle with the social policy of , a class of genius would rise to the top of the system of social stratification, followed by a class of talent. Most of the rest of society would fit into the class of mediocrity. Those who were considered to be defective (mentally retarded, handicapped, etc.) had a negative effect on social progress by draining off necessary resources. They should be left on their own to sink or swim. But those in the class of delinquent (criminals, deviants, etc.) should be eliminated from society ("Folkways", 1907).

By 1931, eugenicists had convinced twenty-seven American states to enact sterilization laws, which barred

Eugenics in the United States - Wikipedia

Eugenicists advocate specific policies that (if successful) would lead to a perceived improvement of the human gene pool. Since defining what improvements are desired or beneficial is by many perceived as a choice rather than a matter that can be determined objectively (e.g., by empirical, scientific inquiry), eugenics has often been deemed a . The most disputed aspect of eugenics has been the definition of "improvement" of the human gene pool, such as what is a beneficial characteristic and what is a defect. This aspect of eugenics has historically been tainted with .

Eugenics, the Genome, and Human Rights | SpringerLink

Early eugenicists were mostly concerned with perceived factors that often correlated strongly with . Many eugenicists took inspiration from the of animals (where are often strived for) as their analogy for improving human society. The mixing of races (or ) was usually considered as something to be avoided in the name of . At the time this concept appeared to have some scientific support, and it remained a contentious issue until the advanced development of led to a scientific consensus that the division of the human species into unequal races is unjustifiable. Some see this as an ideological consensus, since equality, just like inequality, is a choice rather than a matter that can be determined objectively.

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Eugenic policies have been conceptually divided into two categories: , which encourage a designated "most fit" to reproduce more often; and , which discourage or prevent a designated "less fit" from reproducing. Negative eugenics need not be coercive. A state might offer financial rewards to certain people who submit to sterilization, although some critics might reply that this incentive along with social pressure could be perceived as coercion. Positive eugenics can also be coercive. by "" women was illegal in .

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under was infamous for eugenics programs which attempted to maintain a "pure" German race through a series of programs that ran under the banner of "". Among other activities, the Nazis performed extensive experimentation on live human beings to test their genetic theories, ranging from simple measurement of physical characteristics to the horrific experiments carried out by for on twins in the concentration camps. During the 1930s and 1940s, the Nazi regime forcibly sterilized hundreds of thousands of people whom they viewed as mentally and physically "unfit", an estimated 400,000 between 1934 and 1937. The scale of the Nazi program prompted American eugenics advocates to seek an expansion of their program, with one complaining that "the Germans are beating us at our own game". The Nazis went further, however, killing tens of thousands of the institutionalized disabled through compulsory "" programs.