Language, Religion and the politics - Best Essay Writers
Religion and politics are concepts that designate two different and interdependent subsystems of society. Although the concepts are separated analytically, the relationship between religion and politics is characterized by interdependence. A definition of religion widely accepted among social scientists is provided by Peter Berger (1967, 1999), who defines religion as a “set of beliefs that connects the individual to a community, and in turn to a sense of being or purpose that transcends the individual and the mundane.” The concept of politics denominates the regulative power to make collectively binding decisions, allocate resources, and solve social problems.
Essay on Religion and Politics in India
Whereas the first two waves of democracy were predominantly Protestant waves, the third wave (post-1974) is often referred to as the “Catholic wave and the fourth wave (post-1989) has involved numerous Orthodox-Christian and non-Christian majority countries with Buddhist, Confucian, and Muslim backgrounds. While the question of the compatibility of democracy with certain religions occupied a great deal of scholarship until recently, the fourth wave has given empirical credence to the argument that all religions are multivocal and can be reconciled with democratic values and human rights, if and where local religious intellectuals succeed in generating arguments within their own religious traditions supportive of such values. In turn, given the interdependent relationship between religion and politics, religious beliefs and practices evolve within the context of sociopolitical institutions. That is, the political regime type can significantly shape religious beliefs and practices in the medium to long term.
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Religion and Politics Essay - Paper Topics
At the same time, religion also, and most important, provided an inner sense of obligation on the part of individuals that legitimized certain forms of social power and hierarchy. The separation between the inner or private life and the outer or public one was always unified in traditional religious societies, or at least mostly so. The result was that ritual and belief served a political purpose in the sense that they provided a legitimation for authority, since they were able to unite the political hierarchies that existed within the community with a cosmological schema. Thus, the relation between religion and politics has always dealt with the problem of value orientations: individuals must orient their subjective values, at least in some degree, toward the acceptance of the order in which they live. Both religion and politics therefore find a common ground in that they seek, albeit in different ways, to orient individuals toward social order and in some way to legitimize that order.
Religion and Politics Essay - 1413 Words | Cram
Religion and politics share a common concern: the order of human beings in the social world in order to avoid the problem of chaos. If at least one definition of politics is the means by which we order our community and even our personal conduct through the formulation and acceptance of certain rules, laws, and institutions that oversee them, then religion has always had a political function by structuring the world—both inner and outer—in order to provide or enforce some kind of organizing order and meaning of the community. Dominating premodern or pre-Enlightenment concepts of religion and religious life was the notion that the individual was ensconced in a broader order of things, one ordained supernaturally that structured communal relationships as well as personal attitudes toward authority and social power by linking that order of things to some transcendental authority. Religion possessed a political function precisely because it served as the undergirding rationalization for law and the ways that social relationships were governed and organized within the community.
FREE Religion and Politics Essay
The relationship between religion and politics experienced a systematic restructuring in the context of the early modern secularization processes, which led to the emergence of the modern secular state. While the past century has seen a myriad of often contradictory usages of the concept of secularization, most social scientists today agree, at a minimum, on the historical-descriptive conception of secularization as denominating the process of differentiation of the secular spheres (e.g., state, law, economy, science, administration) from religious institutions and norms (e.g., the transfer of persons, things, meanings) from ecclesiastical or religious to civil or lay use, possession, or control. This conception is also closest to the etymological origin of the term. Other conceptions of secularization are of teleological nature, as used, for instance, in Berger who prognosticated a worldwide decline in the relevance of religious beliefs in social and political life with increasing societal modernization and rationalization. This conception of secularization has been refuted most prominently in the discipline of the sociology of religion, which has shown that declining levels of religiosity in the twentieth century were a phenomenon confined to Europe and thus a global exception rather than the rule. Contrary to prognoses about the “end of religion” in the twentieth century, a worldwide resurgence of private and public religion has taken place.