How does Nietzsche understand the origin of bad conscience?

He is known for his works on genealogy of morality, which is a way to study values and concepts.

On the Genealogy of Morals, First Essay Friedrich Nietzsche

The old word "will" now serves only to denote a resultant, a kind of individual reaction, which follows necessarily upon a number of partly contradictory, partly harmonious stimuli: the will no longer "acts" or "moves."Formerly, the proof of man's higher origin, of his divinity, was found in his consciousness, in his "spirit." To become perfect, he was advised to draw in his senses, turtle fashion, to cease all intercourse with earthly things, to shed his mortal shroud: then his essence would remain, the "pure spirit." Here too we have reconsidered: the development of consciousness, the "spirit," is for us nothing less than the symptom of a relative imperfection of the organism; it means trying, groping, blundering — an exertion which uses up an unnecessary amount of nervous energy.

accuse "historians of morality" and (most) philosophers of lacking the historical spirit?

Study Questions on Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morals

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The creation of morals makes the biggest impacts on individuals and society.

However, the morality of Christianity lingers in the background, and, while still influencing people, Nietzsche predicts that the Europe of his time was soon to see a nihilistic sickness....

No one person has more than the other, but rather everyone shares in the fruits of their labors.

Friedrich Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals 2nd ..

This leads him to both knowingly, and unknowingly practice Sublimation, the deflection, re-direction and re-channeling of undesirable appetitive and emotional desires, urges and instincts into more beneficial acts, up to and including repression....

Nietzsches On the Genealogy of Morals custom essay | …

And return and walk in that other lane, out there, before us, in this long dreadful lane — must we not eternally return?" (ewig wiederkehren)Thus I spoke, more and more softly; for I was afraid of my own thoughts and the thoughts behind my thoughts.

Genealogy of Morals by Nietzsche

This is demonstrated through the depiction of the creditor/debtor relationship that exists in our democratic societies, and the equalization process that occurs, and furthermore that Nietzsche is correct to assess justice as such a principle.

Humanities/philosophy Nietzsche: Genealogy of Morals

Intercourse between imaginary beings ("God," "spirits," "souls"); an imaginary natural science (anthropocentric; no trace of any concept of natural causes); an imaginary psychology (nothing but self-misunderstandings, interpretations of agreeable or disagreeable general feelings — for example, of the states of the nervus sympathicus — with the aid of the sign language of the religio-moral idiosyncrasy: "repentance," "pangs of conscience," "temptation by the devil," "the presence of God"); an imaginary teleology ("the kingdom of God," "the Last Judgment," "eternal life").

SparkNotes: Genealogy of Morals: Third Essay, Sections 1-10

However, if we place ourselves at the terminal point of this great process, where society and custom finally reveal their true aim, we shall find the ripest fruit of that tree to be the sovereign individual, equal only to himself, all moral custom left far behind.

On the Genealogy of Morality - Wikipedia

To lead a healthy and happy life, man must be capable not only of historical though but also of unhistorical thought; Nietzsche likens the superhistorical being who never forgets to one who cannot sleep....