Video embedded · The Effects of Mass Production
The seminal event in the history of mass production was the appearance of the Model T automobile which, to quote its manufacturer, the Ford Motor Company, “chugged into history on October 1st 1908”. Henry Ford himself called it the “universal car”, and it became so popular that, by the end of 1913, Ford was making half of all the cars produced in the United States.
Mass production | The Economist
I found that if people are candidates for the choir, they are so rare that there will not be anybody in their daily lives who also is. The maximum social circle that most people can manage is a few hundred people, but I am looking for something like 1-in-5,000 (it might be as auspicious as 1-in-1,000, but I have my doubts, and it might be a far smaller proportion) so the odds are that those prospective choir members will not have anybody among their families, friends, and colleagues who can also learn the song and sing it. That is just the reality of the numbers, which took me years of harsh learning to understand. The social-circle approach will not work for what I have in mind, but I am using a new technology with a global reach to find those needles in haystacks. Also, a primary purpose of this essay is to improve those odds. Make no mistake, it is also about the numbers, but it is as Martin Luther King, Jr. said, that he would rather march with one person who understood why they were marching than a hundred who did not. Essentially, Dennis always amassed “armies” that did not really understand or were not aligned with the goal, and mutiny attempts came early and often.
The evolutionary game for a species is for enough of its members to survive long enough to produce viable offspring. Organisms have adopted myriad survival and reproduction strategies, with astonishing diversity. There are many ways to win or lose that game, but every species eventually loses. More than 99.9% of all species that have ever lived on Earth became extinct. A mammalian species has a life expectancy of around a million years, while a marine invertebrate species has one of about . Today’s global extinction rate is more than 100 times the “normal” rate (“background rate”), and perhaps far greater, such as 10,000 times, due to human domination of the ecosphere. The current rates could rival and equal the rates during the greatest mass extinction of all: the .
Essay on Vested Interests in Production
Mass extinction events may be the result of multiple ecosystem stresses that reach the level where the ecosystem unravels. Other than the meteor impact that destroyed the dinosaurs, the rest of the mass extinctions seem to have multiple contributing causes, and each one ultimately had an energy impact on life processes. The processes can be complex and scientists are only beginning to understand them. This essay will survey mass extinction events and their aftermaths in some detail, as they were critical junctures in the journey of life on Earth.
Carolyn Ward: Mass Production Card Making - a Tutorial
Since the most dramatic instances of speciation seem to have happened in the aftermath of mass extinctions, this essay will survey extinction first. A corollary to is that if any critical nutrient falls low enough, the nutrient deficiency will not only limit growth, but the organism will be stressed. If the nutrient level falls far enough, the organism will die. A human can generally survive between one and two months without food, ten days without water, and about three minutes without oxygen. For nearly all animals, all the food and water in the world are meaningless without oxygen. Some microbes can switch between aerobic respiration and fermentation, depending on the environment (which might be a very old talent), but complex life generally does not have that ability; nearly all aerobic complex life is oxygen dependent. The only exceptions are marine life which has adapted to . Birds can go where mammals cannot, , for instance, or being , due to their . If oxygen levels rise or fall very fast, many organisms will not be able to adapt, and will die.
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are limited in size because their energy production only takes place at their cellular membranes. In ecosystems, the race usually goes to the quick, and it is very true with bacteria, as the smallest bacteria are faster and “win” the race of survival. Mitochondria increase the membrane surface area for ATP reactions to take place, which allowed cells to grow in size. The average eukaryotic cell has more than 10 thousand times the mass of the average prokaryotic cell, and the largest eukaryotic cells have hundreds of thousands of times the mass (or around a trillion times for ostrich eggs, for instance, which exist as single-cells when formed). Where an organism has the greatest energy needs, such as in muscle and nerve cells, the greatest numbers of mitochondria are found. In a typical animal cell, dotted with hundreds of mitochondria, a single mitochondrion is the size of the prokaryote that became the mitochondrion, and is representative of prokaryote size in general. That increased surface area to generate ATP allowed eukaryotic cells to grow large and complex. There are quintillions (a million trillion) of those in a human body, spinning at up to hundreds of revolutions per second, generating ATP molecules.