Find and download essays and research papers on INSTITUTIONALIZATION
For a long time, when mental illness and mental health were discussed around me, I felt uncomfortable. I judged the mentally ill, was afraid of the mentally ill, and silently stigmatized the mentally ill. I was phobic of what was different, scared that I may be able to relate, and closed to hearing any kind of understanding. I realize now that I was just adding to the problem- the problems those with mental illness face, and the problems I faced as a result of being so judgmental. The truth is, it’s everywhere. People are mentally ill all around us, because life is hard, and our brains are complicated, and we can’t always react and think and feel the way we’d like to. It’s interesting that mental illness has been around just about as long as we can know, with different groups and societies having different interpretations and cures for various ailments. I’ve focused this essay on the history of mental illness globally at first, and then solely in America, and the use of institutionalization and the view of the stigmatized up until now.
prisonization or institutionalization and rehabilitation.
Institutionalization has been described since the 1960s as a process that completely encompasses an incarcerated individual’s life. Drawing on his own research of a range of institutions including monasteries, boarding schools, psychiatric hospitals, and prisons, Erving Goffman produced a typology of characteristics associated with what he considered to be a “total institution.” Some features include hierarchy, routine, rituals of degradation, initiation, and segregation. For Goffman, a total institution is a place of work and residence where similarly situated individuals, typically cut off from the larger society for a lengthy amount of time, live together in an enclosed and formally administered life.
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Gender Difference in History: Women in China and …
In the fifth stage, incarcerated individuals sometimes embrace the informal norms of their institution, including those that are most violent. This typically occurs because prisoners are not given an alternative culture to participate in. For example, state correctional systems continue to cut rehabilitative and educational programming, thus depriving inmates of important positive and productive opportunities. Because of the severe lack of prosocial experiences offered, inmates resort to embracing the institutionalized prison culture as is. This response to institutionalization has serious ramifications for the functioning of the inmates as well as the institution as a whole. For instance, research completed by Richard McCorkle and his colleagues found that prisons that involved a greater percentage of prosocial programs related to education and vocational training were characterized by lower rates of prison violence overall.
Essay on the gender difference in history: women in China and Japan.
The third phase, alienation and psychological distancing, characterize the emotional overcontrol an incarcerated individual has toward his/her place in prison society. Incarcerated individuals find it cumbersome to control and/or suppress their varied emotional reactions to those institutional events surrounding them (e.g., prison violence, riots, lockdowns). In response, they isolate, demonstrate intense emotion, or become numb. This process of institutionalization thus includes alienation, which leads to social and emotional distancing, further contributing to a lack of positive relationships. Perhaps best characterized as a defense mechanism, this level of isolation makes any kind of emotional investment seem unpredictable and unmanageable. For some inmates, the reality of their exclusion becomes so extreme that they find themselves permanently distanced.
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Richard McCorkle’s 1992 study of a maximum-security prison is a good example of different kinds of behavioral strategies prisoners use to help them navigate and survive their dangerous prison environment. This study found that fear led over 40 percent of inmates to avoid certain high-risk areas of the prison. About an equal number reported that, as a precaution against potential victimization, they purposefully spent more time in their prison cells. Additionally, roughly three-quarters of inmates reported that they had been forced to “get tough” with another prisoner to avoid victimization. Similarly, more than a quarter of all inmates said that they kept a “shank” or other weapon nearby to defend themselves if needed. These are just some of the typical behaviors inmates use to minimize their chance of victimization, another important aspect of institutionalization.