Essay on Computer for Children and Students
Despite these criticisms, work on expert systems continues to be published; some corporations with strong knowledge-engineering capabilities continue to report substantial savings from expert systems and have demonstrated a continued commitment to expanding their use. Expert-system shell programs continue to be developed, improved, and sold. By 1992, some 11 shell programs were available for the MacIntosh platform, 29 for IBM-DOS platforms, 4 for Unix platforms, and 12 for dedicated mainframe applications. A recent review of expert systems reported that the North American market for expert systems is roughly $250 million (representing about 70 percent of the total commercial AI market). Estimates suggest that more than 12,000 stand-alone expert systems are in use (Liebowitz, 1997). Moreover, small expert systems are being incorporated into other types of computer software, most of it proprietary.
Applications of computers in various fields Essay …
Hackers write malicious programs(e.g., the Melissa virus that struck on 26 March 1999)to use the victim's e-mail address book in Microsoft Outlook,knowing that such a malicious program will causehavoc on personal computers, because of the popularity of Outlook.
DARPA established the Speech Understanding Research (SUR) program to develop a computer system that could understand continuous speech. Lawrence Roberts initiated this project in 1971 while he was director of IPTO, against the advice of a National Academy of Sciences committee. Roberts wanted a system that could handle a vocabulary of 10,000 English words spoken by anyone. His advisory board, which included Allen Newell and J.C.R. Licklider, issued a report calling for an objective of 1,000 words spoken in a quiet room by a limited number of people, using a restricted subject vocabulary (Newell et al., 1971).
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. . . the DARPA support of AI and computer science is a remarkable story of the nurturing of a new scientific field. Not only with MIT, Stanford and CMU, which are now seen as the main DARPA-supported university computer-science research environments, but with other universities as well . . . DARPA began to build excellence in information processing in whatever fashion we thought best. . . . The DARPA effort, or anything similar, had not been in our wildest imaginings. . . .
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In addition, Blumenthal alone was charged withfelony counts of forgery and falsifying business records,for his creation of the anonymous computer accountat Cornell University.
Free Computer Applications Essay Sample
The establishment in 1962 of ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) radically changed the scale of research in AI, propelling it from a collection of small projects into a large-scale, high-profile domain. From the 1960s through the 1990s, DARPA provided the bulk of the nation's support for AI research and thus helped to legitimize AI as an important field of inquiry and influence the scope of related research. Over time, the nature of DARPA's support changed radically—from an emphasis on fundamental research at a limited number of centers of excellence to more broad-based support for applied research tied to military applications—both reflecting and motivating changes in the field of AI itself.
Text Mining Concepts Process And Applications Computer Science Essay
However, Apple computer users who also useMicrosoft Word 97 or later are vulnerable to the same macroviruses that plague Word users on Microsoft Windows 95 or later.
Sample College Application Essay 1 - Get Ready for College
Previously, computers had been used principally to crunch numbers, and the tools for such tasks were primitive. The AI researchers found ways to represent logical formulas, carry out proofs, conduct plans, and manipulate such objects. Buoyed by their successes, researchers at both institutions projected bold visions—which, as the research was communicated to the public, became magnified into excessive claims—about the future of the new field of AI and what computers might ultimately achieve.