2 Multiculturalism in Canada Essay.

Multiculturalism and the Canadian identity Essay - …

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The set of critiques that has ignited perhaps the most intense debateabout multiculturalism argues that extending protections to minoritygroups may come at the price of reinforcing oppression of vulnerablemembers of those groups—what some have called the problem of“internal minorities” or “minorities withinminorities” (Green 1994, Eisenberg and Spinner-Halev 2005).Multicultural theorists have tended to focus on inequalitiesbetween groups in arguing for special protections forminority groups, but group-based protections can exacerbateinequalities within minority groups. This is because someways of protecting minority groups from oppression by the majority maymake it more likely that more powerful members of those groups areable to undermine the basic liberties and opportunities of vulnerablemembers. Vulnerable subgroups within minority groups include religiousdissenters, sexual minorities, women, and children. A group's leadersmay exaggerate the degree of consensus and solidarity within theirgroup to present a united front to the wider society and strengthentheir case for accommodation.

Those against multiculturalism usually express concern about one or more of its aspects: immigration, language, culture, and race.

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It is my contention, therefore, that the best we can do in terms of "defining" a national cinema, let alone a multicultural national cinema such as the one found in Canada, is to point to a certain tension and tendencies within a given film culture. From the vantage point of the late 1990s, if Canada does have a popular cinema, this is the cinema we have: one that has meshed within its narrative structures avant-garde and experimental elements, derived both from Canadian experimental film and video and from European art cinema—most notably the cinema of Jean-Luc Godard and Wim Wenders. Canada’s indigenous cinema, therefore, is always in dialogue with another. Furthermore, the technological effects of image-making technology on Canadian culture described by Elder in his essay have become, in the 1990s, one of the dominant themes of Canadian cinema.

Essay Multiculturalism in Canada

Finally, in a globalised world, the last ten years have seen the internet augment a multicultural society by creating a venue to air diverse cultural opinions and to construct diverse cultural identities. Mainstream newspapers, radio and current affairs programmes are representative of a perceived norm and do not reflect the complexity of a multicultural society. In turn, ethnocentric or non-mainstream media reach a narrowly targeted audience and serve to further ghettoize "the other" (Zadrow 2010 p.11). The internet thus provides the opportunity for any voice to be heard alongside and equally with all other voices in the country, community, or indeed, the world. In this way the internet equips the global citizen with a fluidity they can use to exist and interact both globally and locally, rather than being confined to a fixed and marginalised identity. Notwithstanding the fact that the internet is English based and broadly advocates a western lifestyle, this does not necessarily mean it must lead to a homogenized world. Citing the research of Kennard, Zadrow (2010) maintains that the internet acts as an interactive archive from which an individual can draw all the elements to both create and, more importantly, preserve cultural identity.

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wrote Saturday in his Globe essay on multiculturalism

In addition to state support of certain cultures over others, statelaws may place constraints on some cultural groups overothers. Consider the case of dress code regulations in public schoolsor the workplace. A ban on religious dress burdens religiousindividuals, as in the case of Simcha Goldman, a U.S. Air Forceofficer, who was also an ordained rabbi and wished to wear a yarmulkeout of respect to an omnipresent God (Goldman v. Weinberger,475 US 503 (1986)). The case of the French state's ban on religiousdress in public schools, which burdens Muslim girls who wish to wearheadscarves to school, is another example (Bowen 2007, Laborde 2008).Religion may command that believers dress in a certain way (what PeterJones calls an “intrinsic burden”), not that believersrefrain from attending school or going to work (Jones 1994). Yet,burdens on believers do not stem from the dictates of religion alone;they also arise from the intersection of the demands of religion andthe demands of the state (“extrinsic burden”). Individualsmust bear intrinsic burdens themselves; bearing the burdens of thedictates of one's faith, such as prayer, worship, and fasting, just ispart of meeting one's religious obligations. When it comes toextrinsic burdens, however, liberal multiculturalists argue thatjustice requires assisting cultural minorities bear the burdens ofthese unchosen disadvantages.

Multiculturalism and national identity essay

Switzerland, never ethnically homogeneous, has long been the prototype of a multicultural nation. It has four official languages (German, French, Italian, and Rumantsch), is home to multiple religions, has a 20 percent foreign-born population, and its Cantons (cities) have substantial autonomy. Although all ethnic groups live a peaceful coexistence, in reality they lead parallel, separate lives, not ones within a fully integrated society. Its German majority (64 percent of the population) lives mostly in the northern and central regions; its dominant French minority (20 percent) are mostly in the western region; its Italian minority (7 percent) reside mostly in the southern region; and those speaking Rumantsch (less than 1 percent) live mostly in the southeastern region. English is the unofficial fifth language, both in the corporate world and in popular culture.