Discrimination and Equality Essay Examples - New York essay
All human beings have the right to work and the same employment opportunities. Business organizations should therefore strive towards the removal of barriers to the full and equal participation of men and women in the workforce. The same criteria should be applied during the processes of selection and recruitment. Men and women should have equal chances toemployment opportunities on the basis of their qualification and competence. Businesses should endeavor to provide unlimited access to all occupations and industries, including leadership roles for women and men.
Equality in Opportunity and Equality in Outcome Essay
The equality required in the economic sphere is complex, takingaccount of several positions that — each according to thepresumption of equality — justify a turn away from equality. Asalient problem here is what constitutes justified exceptions to equaldistribution of goods — the main subfield in the debate overadequate conceptions of distributive equality and its currency. Thefollowing sorts of factors are usually considered eligible forjustified unequal treatment: (a) need or differing naturaldisadvantages (e.g. disabilities); (b) existing rights or claims(e.g. private property); (c) differences in the performance of specialservices (e.g. desert, efforts, or sacrifices); (d) efficiency; and(e) compensation for direct and indirect or structural discrimination(e.g. affirmative action).
Full suffrage occurs when all groups of women are included in national voting and can run for any political office. In most cases women won the right to vote in uneven stages. New Zealand in 1893 was first. Liberalism was a strong force in this pioneering land which increasingly rejected what it viewed as archaic attitudes from the Old World. The support of social reform issues, including temperance, gave New Zealand suffragists the edge they needed. The now famous Womens Suffrage Petition is credited with being a major force for this success. Signed by close to one quarter of the female adult population, the petition was the largest of its kind in New Zealand and other western countries. It is comprised of 546 sheets of paper, all glued together to form one continuous roll 274 metres long, with the signatures of over 10,000 adult women. A few Maori women signed, but at this time they mainly were concerned with achieving political participation rights for the whole tribe.
Gender Equality Essay 1324 words - 5 pages ..
In any event, with a shift away from a strictly negative idea offreedom, economic liberalism can indeed itself point the way to moresocial and economic equality. For with such a shift, what is at stakeis not only assuring an equal right to self-defense, but alsofurnishing everyone more or less the same chance to actually make useof the right to freedom (e.g. Van Parijs 1995, Steiner 1994). In otherwords, certain basic goods need to be furnished to assure the equitableor ‘fair value of the basic liberties’ (Rawls 1993, pp.356-63).
Principles of Justice and Fairness | Beyond Intractability
Proposing a connection between equality and pluralism, MichaelWalzer's theory (1983) aims at what he calls “complex equality”.According to Walzer, relevant reasons can only speak in favor ofdistribution of specific types of goods in specific spheres —not in several or all spheres. Against a theory of simple equalitypromoting equal distribution of dominant goods, hence underestimatingthe complexity of the criteria at work in each given sphere thedominance of particular goods needs to be ended. For instance,purchasing power in the political sphere through means derived fromthe economic sphere (i.e., money) needs to be prevented. Actually,Walzer's theory of complex equality is not aimed at equality but atthe separation of spheres of justice, the theory's designation thusbeing misleading. Any theory of equality should however followWalzer's advice not to be monistic but recognize the complexity oflife and the plurality of criteria for justice.
How to Write the Perfect Introduction of an Essay - …
Represented above all by both Rawls and Dworkin, resource equalityavoids such problems (Rawls 1971; Dworkin 1981b). It holds individualsresponsible for their decisions and actions, not, however, forcircumstances beyond their control — race, sex, and skin-color, butalso intelligence and social position — which thus are excluded asdistributive criteria. Equal opportunity is insufficient because itdoes not compensate for unequal innate gifts. What applies for socialcircumstances should also apply for such gifts, both these factorsbeing purely arbitrary from a moral point of view and requiringadjustment.
The Subjection of Women - Wikipedia
(v) Simple equality is very often associated with equality ofresults (although these are two distinct concepts). However, to striveonly for equality of results is problematic. To illustrate the point,let us briefly limit the discussion to a single action and the event orstate of affairs resulting from it. Arguably, actions should not bejudged solely by the moral quality of their results as important asthis may be. One also has to take into consideration the way in whichthe events or circumstances to be evaluated have come about. Generallyspeaking, a moral judgement requires not only the assessment of theresults of the action in question (the consequentialist aspect) but,first and foremost, the assessment of the intention of the actor (thedeontological aspect). The source and its moral quality influence themoral judgement of the results (Pogge 1999, sect. V). For example, ifyou strike me, your blow will hurt me; the pain I feel may beconsidered bad in itself, but the moral status of your blow will alsodepend on whether you were (morally) allowed such a gesture (perhapsthrough parental status, although that is controversial) or evenobliged to execute it (e.g. as a police officer preventing me fromdoing harm to others), or whether it was in fact prohibited but notprevented. What is true of individual actions (or their omission) hasto be true mutatis mutandis of social institutions andcircumstances like distributions resulting from collective socialactions (or their omission). Hence social institutions are to beassessed not solely on the basis of information about how they affectindividual quality of life. A society in which people starve on thestreets is certainly marked by inequality; nevertheless, its moralquality, i.e., whether the society is just or unjust with regard tothis problem, also depends on the suffering's causes. Does the societyallow starvation as an unintended but tolerable side effect of what itsmembers see as a just distributive scheme? Indeed, does it even defendthe suffering as a necessary means, e.g. as a sort of Social Darwinism?Or has the society taken measures against starvation which have turnedout insufficient? In the latter case, whether the society has takensuch steps for reasons of political morality or efficiency again makesa moral difference. Hence even for egalitarians, equality of results istoo narrow and one-sided a focus.