Empirical Rule Essay - 552 Words - StudyMode
The strength of this argument varies with its examples of purportedknowledge. Insofar as we focus on controversial claims in metaphysics,e.g., that God exists, that our mind is a distinct substance from ourbody, the initial premise that we know the claims is less thancompelling. Taken with regard to other areas, however, the argumentclearly has legs. We know a great deal of mathematics, and what weknow, we know to be necessarily true. None of our experiences warrantsa belief in such necessity, and we do not seem to base our knowledgeon any experiences. The warrant that provides us with knowledge arisesfrom an intellectual grasp of the propositions which is clearly partof our learning. Similarly, we seem to have such moral knowledge asthat, all other things being equal, it is wrong to break a promise andthat pleasure is intrinsically good. No empirical lesson about howthings are can warrant such knowledge of how they ought to be.
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An empiricist response to this general line of argument is given byLocke (1690, Book I, Chapter IV, Sections 1–25, pp.91–107). First, there is the problem of explaining what it isfor someone to have an innate concept. If having an innate conceptentails consciously entertaining it at present or in the past, thenDescartes’s position is open to obvious counterexamples. Youngchildren and people from other cultures do not consciously entertainthe concept of God and have not done so. Second, there is theobjection that we have no need to appeal to innate concepts in thefirst place. Contrary to Descartes’ argument, we can explain howexperience provides all our ideas, including those the rationaliststake to be innate, and with just the content that the rationalistsattribute to them.
This argument for the Intuition/Deduction thesis raises additionalquestions which rationalists must answer. Insofar as they maintainthat our knowledge of necessary truths in mathematics or elsewhere byintuition and deduction is substantive knowledge of the externalworld, they owe us an account of this form of necessity. Manyempiricists stand ready to argue that “necessity resides in theway we talk about things, not in the things we talk about”(Quine 1966, p. 174). Similarly, if rationalists claim that ourknowledge in morals is knowledge of an objective form of obligation,they owe us an account of how objective values are part of a world ofapparently valueless facts.
Empirical Research: Definition and Examples
The , which is usually a paragraph or two in length, introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting. To capture the reader’s attention, researcher Daryl Bem recommends starting with general observations about the topic under study, expressed in ordinary language (not technical jargon)—observations that are about people and their behavior (not about researchers or their research; Bem, 2003). Concrete examples are often very useful here. According to Bem, this would be a poor way to begin a research report:
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And nowhere does this do more harm than in the education of minority children.
The quest for esoteric methods of trying to educate these children proceeds as if such children had never been successfully educated before, when in fact there are concrete examples, both from history and from our own times, of schools that have been sucessful in educating children from low-income families and from minority families. Yet the educational dogma of the day is that you simply cannot expect children who are not middle-class to do well on standardized tests, for all sorts of sociological and psychological reasons.
Those who think this way are undeterred by the fact that there are schools where low-income and minority students do in fact score well on standardized tests. These students are like the bumblebees who supposedly should not be able to fly, according to the theories of aerodynamics, but who fly anyway, in disregard of those theories.
While there are examples of schools where this happens in our own time-- both public and private, secular and religious-- we can also go back nearly a hundred years and find the same phenomenon. Back in 1899, in Washington, D.
Empirical Research: Definition and Examples - Write a …
The disagreement between rationalists and empiricists primarilyconcerns the second question, regarding the sources of our conceptsand knowledge. In some instances, their disagreement on this topicleads them to give conflicting responses to the other questions aswell. They may disagree over the nature of warrant or about the limitsof our thought and knowledge. Our focus here will be on the competingrationalist and empiricist responses to the second question.