The intensive development of modern science, ..

The vital role of science in modern life is not overstated in view of today’s world

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Humans took a different path 2.5 mya. There are generally two schools of thought regarding the appearance of among scientists: one is called the Multiregional Model, and the other is called the . In their essence, the Multiregional Model had those migrants eventually evolving into today’s races, and the “Out of Africa” Model had humans evolve in Africa and then spread across the world and replace/displace all other members of the genus. The rise of has largely resolved the issue in favor of the “Out of Africa” Model. There are also intermediate views and variations of each hypothesis, which generally relate to the invaders mating with the natives, even if they could be classified as separate species. For instance, Neanderthal DNA is part of the human genome, which reflects interbreeding. Since Neanderthals were largely confined to Europe and what became the Fertile Crescent, and the migration of the original was from Africa, sub-Saharan Africans . Africans also have the most genetic divergence, which reflects the idea that humans have lived longer in Africa than anywhere else. There is virtually no doubt that evolved in Africa.

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The Role Of Women In The Modern World Essay

But the branch of the that readers might find most interesting led to humans. Humans are in the phylum, and the last common ancestor that founded the Chordata phylum is still a mystery and understandably a source of controversy. Was our ancestor a ? A ? Peter Ward made the case, as have others for a long time, that it was the sea squirt, also called a tunicate, which in its larval stage resembles a fish. The nerve cord in most bilaterally symmetric animals runs below the belly, not above it, and a sea squirt that never grew up may have been our direct ancestor. Adult tunicates are also highly adapted to extracting oxygen from water, even too much so, with only about 10% of today’s available oxygen extracted in tunicate respiration. It may mean that tunicates adapted to low oxygen conditions early on. Ward’s respiration hypothesis, which makes the case that adapting to low oxygen conditions was an evolutionary spur for animals, will repeatedly reappear in this essay, as will . Ward’s hypothesis may be proven wrong or will not have the key influence that he attributes to it, but it also has plenty going for it. The idea that fluctuating oxygen levels impacted animal evolution has been gaining support in recent years, particularly in light of recent reconstructions of oxygen levels in the eon of complex life, called and , which have yielded broadly similar results, but their variances mean that much more work needs to be performed before on the can be done, if it ever can be. Ward’s basic hypotheses is that when oxygen levels are high, ecosystems are diverse and life is an easy proposition; when oxygen levels are low, animals adapted to high oxygen levels go extinct and the survivors are adapted to low oxygen with body plan changes, and their adaptations helped them dominate after the extinctions. The has a pretty wide range of potential error, particularly in the early years, and it also tracked atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The challenges to the validity of a model based on data with such a wide range of error are understandable. But some broad trends are unmistakable, as it is with other models, some of which are generally declining carbon dioxide levels, some huge oxygen spikes, and the generally relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, which a geochemist would expect. The high carbon dioxide level during the Cambrian, of at least 4,000 PPM (the "RCO2" in the below graphic is a ratio of the calculated CO2 levels to today's levels), is what scientists think made the times so hot. (Permission: Peter Ward, June 2014)

Free sample essay on Scientific and Technological Development in India (Free to read). The modern age is the age of science, technology, knowledge and information.

The greatest scientists readily admitted that the theories and data of physics, that hardest of the hard sciences, drew highly limited descriptions of reality, and those scientists were usually, to one extent or another, . If textbook science falls far short of explaining reality, what can be said within its framework that is useful? Plenty. Our industrialized world is based on textbook science and feats such as putting men on the Moon were performed within the parameters of textbook science. With the waning of overspecialization and overreliance on reductionism in the last decades of the 20th century, multidisciplinary works have proliferated and will tend to dominate the references for this essay. I have found them not only very helpful for my own understanding, but they are appropriate references for a generalist essay. I have also avoided scientific terminology when feasible. For example, I use “seafloor” instead of “,” and if a non-specialized term will suffice for a scientific concept, I will often use it.

Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations


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Models of professionalization and institutionalizationInstitutionalization and professionalization, with the concomitant trainingin the scientific communities, has in reality played an essential partin the formation and development of the scientific disciplines.

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What began to emerge from all of this was an autonomous program in thehistory of geography which sought to encompass the whole development ofmodern geography, from the Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution upto the present.

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This essay is intended to draw a comprehensive picture of life on Earth, the human journey, and energy's role. The references that support this essay are usually to works written for non-scientists or those of modest academic achievement so that non-scientists can study the same works without needing specialized scientific training. I am trying to in a tiny fraction of the global population. . My hope is that the energy issue can become that tiny fraction's focus. Properly educated, that group might be able to help catalyze an energy effort that can overcome the obstacles. That envisioned group may help humanity in many ways, but my primary goal is manifesting those technologies in the public sphere in a way that nobody risks life or livelihood. I have seen too many wrecked and prematurely ended lives (, ) and plan to avoid those fates, for both myself and the group’s members.