Web.The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow.
The constitutionality of state laws that required racial segregation in public facilities, remained under the doctrine of ‘separate but equal.’ The Supreme Court continued to uphold the principles of the Jim Crow laws.
Klarman on the Era of the Jim Crow Laws to Civil Rights Movememt
"The effect was electric. Such a thunder of applause as followed was never heard before within the shell of that old theatre. [...] Next day found the song of Jim Crow, in one style of delivery or another, on everybody's tongue. Clerks hummed it serving customers at shop counters, artisans thundered it at their toils [...] boys whistled it on the streets, ladies warbled it in parlors, and house-maids repeated it to the clink of crockery in kitchens."
The parody earned Thomas "Daddy" Rice instant success and took him from Pittsburgh to Philadelphia, Boston, and back to New York City, where his Jim Crow routine earned more money for the fashionable, upscale Bowery Theatre than any other performance to date.
Members of the black community were segregated to separate and unequal establishments, suppressed by both the legal system as well as their white neighbors (“Examples of Jim Crow Laws”)....
Du Bois on the Black response to Jim Crow
Rummel’s moves toward an integrated Church contributed to the reactionary atmosphere of Massive Resistance in New Orleans. Catholic supporters of Jim Crow asked (and not without cause) why had an infallible Church that had tolerated segregation for decades now suddenly declared the practice as sinful? This vocal group explicitly questioned Archbishop Rummel’s authority to make such interpretations that radically challenged their traditions. Like their Protestant neighbors, Catholic segregationists were also convinced that communist infiltration had inspired the Civil Rights Movement and that organizations like SERINCO and the CHR were directly controlled from Moscow. Catholic segregationists questioned if even Archbishop Rummel had succumbed to communist manipulation.
Vann Woodward wrote The Strange Career of Jim Crow for a purpose.
By denying African Americans certain unalienable rights guaranteed to all American citizens, the Jim Crow laws were one of the greatest contractions of democracy in American history....
Vann Woodward's The Strange Career of Jim Crow
First I listened to a National Public Radio News podcast titled "Jim Crow Is Far From Dead." the host brought on an author of a book with this title “ Jim Crow Is Far From Dead.", Michelle Alexander and had her defend her ideas discussed in her book.
Vann Woodward's The Strange Career of Jim Crow C.
Alexander (2010) did clarify for me that she and others with her same idea did not believe a set of individual laws that equated the laws of Jim crow but that the current criminal Justice system puts African Americans dispositionally in positions...
Jim Crow was a stage name of an actor named Thomas rice.
The Supreme Court
Jim Crow: The Act
Preventing the Black Vote
Violence Against Blacks
"Separate but Equal"
Places of Refuge
Living Behind the Veil
"It was no longer brutally cruel, but subtly cruel.