Most of these recent conflicts areinternal in nature.

The text ends with a review of the essays and summary of conclusions byRubinand Bunker.

Galtung, J. 2002, Searching for peace. Pluto Press, London

Prognosis: the deal Government-FARC–both white–may work; but social injustice conflicts unattended may explode in the face of both. Given the violence culture–conquistadores-poderes fácticos-oligarcos–the explosion is more likely to be violent than not. The acronym will not be FARC. The arms may be stronger; narco-smugglers know how.

You may use any conflict set out in the text, or one described elsewhere.

Day, D. 1952, The long loneliness. Curtis Books, NY.

As Jongman and Schmid note, during the years 1994-95, forexample, there were 1.2 million deaths in high intensity conflicts andat least 10,000 others were killed in smaller conflicts.

At an attitudinal level these conflictsare inimical to the broad imagination spelled out above.

Promoting Women’s Participation in Peace Negotiations and Peace Processes. Prepared by the Programme Promoting Gender Equality and Women’s Rights. GIZ on behalf of BMZ (2014).

For example, the early writings of William James included essays on peace and war.


Master of Arts in International Peace Studies

Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Highlights the importance of the reconciliation process in the development of sustainable peace following civil and international conflict.

Master of Arts in Media, Peace and Conflict Studies

Against the backdrop of World War II, this course looks at the events and circumstances which led to the division of the world into two mutually hostile camps, the communist and the capitalist, each under the aegis of the USSR and the U.S. respectively. This polarization of world politics carried with it the danger that any conflict between the two superpowers might ignite a world-wide conflict. This course examines the Chinese Civil War (1945-1949), the Berlin Blockade, the Korean War, and the launching of Sputnik (1958).

Prerequisite(s): Any History course or permission of the instructor.

Peace and security has to become everyone's business.

Against the backdrop of World War II, this course looks at the events and circumstances which led to the division of the world into two mutually hostile camps, the communist and the capitalist, each under the aegis of the USSR and the U.S. respectively. This polarization of world politics carried with it the danger that any conflict between the two superpowers might ignite a world-wide conflict. This course examines the Chinese Civil War (1945-1949), the Berlin Blockade, the Korean War, and the launching of Sputnik (1958).

Prerequisite(s): Any History course or permission of the instructor.

Peace and security has to become everyone's business.

This course investigates groups considered to be "outsiders" at various points in Western history. By focusing on three specific groups of outsiders and following their respective histories from the Middle Ages to the present, the causes for such ostracization can be explored, and the official as well as public responses to them can be assessed.

Online Master of Arts in Sustainable Peace in the Contemporary World

This course is a continuation of HIST 2241. It examines the U.S. - USSR clash in the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962), the American quagmire in Vietnam, and the Star Wars concept. It follows concurrent attempts at breaking the disabling cold war attitudes and policies, attempts which proved successful only under Mikhail Gorbachev. In 1991, the Cold War was officially proclaimed dead.

Prerequisite(s): HIST 2241 or permission of the instructor. HIST 2241 and HIST 2242 may be taken concurrently.