An Essay on the History of Civil Society by Adam Ferguson
* The Civil Society Forum contest is open to legal residents of the following countries of Central and Eastern Europe: Albania, Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Hungary, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine.
Short Essay on “Civil Society” (320 Words)
Additionally, the top three candidates in each of the three categories will be invited to join us at the Civil Society Forum with the cost of flights and accommodation covered.
Until the Guanxu Reforms of 1898, the notorious eight-legged essay, a rigid traditional format, was the mainstay of the exam papers. Rote learning of the Confucian classics was fundamental to success in the exams, and the scholar who obtained the highest degree, the jinshi, would have his memory trained to a tremendous degree. Texts of a total of over 400,000 characters had to be thoroughly memorised if a candidate was to have any hope of progressing to a civil service position, and even at the district level, the pass rate was only 1 or 2%.
FREE The Orgin Of Civil Society Essay - Example Essays
All the best works in each category will be published online, on the CEE Trust website, the contest's MySpace and Facebook profiles, and the Civil Society Forum YouTube channel. The best essays and selected pictures will also be published, acknowledging your authorship, in conference materials and in the post-event publication. Selected works will be shown in a special exhibition, taking place during the Civil Society Forum.
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Winners will also have the option to simultaneously gain hands-on experience by working in an international team of young people documenting the forum in writing, photography and film. The documentary team's work will be used to create the Civil Society Forum post-event publication. Members of the documentary teams will be advised by professional mentors and will be offered a symbolic remuneration for their contributions.
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What, then,can the independent, voluntary, law-abiding, tolerant and pluralisticorganizations of civil society do to build and maintain democracy?
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Most importantly, the civil examinations provided a conduit for the aspirations ofable men from almost any social stratum. While there are a few famous literary instances of women dressing up as men to take the exams, in practice, women were entirely excluded from the system. But amongst men, the exams were generally open to all, with the exception of a few classes such as actors and slaves.
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Fortunately, frustration with the examination system could take other forms. Many of China's greatest literary and artistic achievements arose from intellectual energies that their creators had intended to channel into the service of the state through earning Imperial degrees. Failure in the examinations is a recurrent theme running through the Chinese literary canon. The massive amount of scholarly energy required for the exams was often channelled into and prose when aspiring scholar-officials failed to obtain their degrees. The Tang period poet is a good example; failure in the Imperial examinations in 736 divorced him from the scholarly traditions of his family, and propelled him on an itinerant career as a poet. Similarly, the great Chinese novelist, Cao Xueqin, wrote “The Dream of the Red Chamber” after his hopes of a civil service career ended in failure. Cao's male characters live lives punctuated by the triennial menace of the examinations.