This document was the Articles of Confederation.

Any amendment to the articles required the unanimous approval of all 13 states.

The Articles of Confederation was made.

Alley,Rew. “Some Memories of Anna Louise Strong.” 9,no. 2 (1970). Admiring biographical article regarding Strong’s politicaljournalism in China, the Soviet Union, and the United States.

The Second Continental Congress wanted to limit the power of the central government so

was governed by the Articles of Confederation.

Garder,John L. “African Americans in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and 1930s: TheDevelopment of Transcontinental Protest.” 23,no. 3 (1999). Discusses Harry Haywood, Oliver Golden, and Langston Hughes.

The Articles of Confederation created a loose union of near-sovereign states.

Keeran,Roger. “Proletarian Fraternalism: The Culture and Politics of the InternationalWorkers Order, 1930-194.” Paper presented at “Reworking American Labor History”conference. State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, 1992.

The Confederation was inadequate and was failing in the structure of government.


Salmond,John A. . Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988.

Gibson,Richard. “Richard Wright.” , 8 March1991. In a letter, Gibson denies any involvement in a CIA assassination ofWright disguised as a natural death and attributes the allegation to Communistsympathizers, naming Ollie Harrington theories in the CPUSA’s and Schofield Coryell’s remarks in the Paris (Jan. 1986).Scoffs at Harrington’s theory that Wrightmay have been murdered because he was about to disavow his anti-Communist essayin .

Foster,Catherine. . Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989.

Foley,Barbara. “From Communism to Brotherhood: The Drafts of Invisible Man.” In , edited by Bill Mullen and James Edward Smethurst. ChapelHill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Hapke,Laura. . Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995.

Fairclough,Adam. “Radicals, Red Baiting and the Civil Rights Movement in Louisiana.” Paperpresented at Organization of American Historians annual meeting, 1991.

Levin,Harry. “‘The Private Life of F.O. Matthiessen.” ,20 July 1978.

Wald,Alan. “Narrating Nationalisms: Black Marxism and Jewish Communists Through theEyes of Harold Cruse.” In , edited by Bill Mullenand James Edward Smethurst. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press,2003.

Billingsley,William J. . Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1999.

McDonough,Julia. “Rednecks and Red Baiting: Race and the Radicalization of the SouthernRegional Council, 1943-1963.” Paper presented at Organization of AmericanHistorians annual meeting, 1991.

Hulsether,Mark. . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1999.

Wald,Alan. “Narrating Nationalisms: Black Marxism and Jewish Communists Through theEyes of Harold Cruse.” 64, no. 4 (Winter2000-01): 400-23. Praises Cruse for taking a problematic rather thanuncritical view of the Communist legacy but strongly disputes treatment ofAfrican American pro-Communist writers and Jewish Party members.