James Corner has reinvented the field of landscape architecture
Since the advent of engineered climate control in the mid-20th Century, humans have “forgotten” how to live with their local climate conditions. This study examines from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives how acclimation via landscape and architecture design interventions can reduce residential energy use. Examining a variety of climates in California, it conducts a cost-benefit analysis of reducing the square footage of enclosed residential space to quantify the savings in construction costs, energy infrastructure, and reduced energy costs. Those monies could be then spent on ecologically appropriate outdoor rooms that mimic the functional and spatial requirements of the home, requiring little to no extra energy costs. Case studies show a variety of options for the design of the outdoor spaces including a) multiple spaces around the building for movement with the sun and wind; b) moveable controls within a single space such as umbrellas, retractable overhead shade structures, and opening louvered fences for wind; and c) additive devices like fire pits to warm and water features to cool-—all of which would also have aesthetic design qualities.
Essays in Contemporary Landscape …
Small towns are subject to decline as industries migrate to other regions or countries (Fuguitt, G. et. al., 1989). One such case is Kinston, NC. Kinston was established as an English settlement in 1762 (Johnson & Hollomon, 1954) and thrived through textiles and tobacco. Decline began in the 1960’s with the export of these industries. Kinston has since struggled to regain an economic foothold. Poverty rates for Lenoir County rose above 25% by 2011 (US Census, 2012). Recent events appear to be prompting economic development. An embryonic arts and culinary movement are finding purchase in the city. Several restaurants have started to transition Kinston into a food tourism destination, one of which is the subject of a PBS series, A Chef’s Life® (Severson, 2015; Howard, 2015). An artist community is being established with several new galleries. The city planning department recently created an artist zone overlay in part of downtown with the intention of offering low cost live/work space to an entrepreneurial creative class (Satira, 2014).
The purpose of this study is to determine if the rise of a creative class is serving as the catalyst for recent change and if not, what factor or factors have contributed to these changes? Creative industries have been shown to increase tourism and regeneration (Wood and Tayler, 2004; Bell, 2005). This research fills a gap in the literature in that there is a paucity of research into small town regeneration in the United States. Much of the existing research occurs internationally. Still, international and domestic research concludes that the greatest success in small town regeneration results from public/private partnerships that leverage existing assets at both local and regional scales. (Brown, 2013; Cebulla, et. al., 2000; Flora, et. al, 1992; Jeannot and Goodchild, 2011; Lewis, 1998; MacDonald and Jolliffe, 2003; Nel and Stevenson, 2014; Osborne, et. al., 2004). This study will add to this literature by detailing the mechanisms that have led to regeneration in Kinston and will add to landscape architects understanding of the issues at play when approaching small town regenerative efforts.
A case study of this regenerative process will be presented that will include a literature review, overview of the issues, and interviews with city officials, non-profits, business owners and other key players. Findings about cooperative partnerships between public and private interests and the role that artists and creatives are having in this effort will be presented.
Broader value of this paper highlights a heuristic method not typically used in undergraduate landscape architecture education. The specialty of applying futures studies to landscape architecture in both quantitative and qualitative data and ideas is a potentially underdeveloped area for new method and theory development.
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The proposed study seeks to explore the underlying factors that contribute to the reliance on current construction documents and inhibit exploration of alternative communication techniques through case studies, interviews, and surveys of landscape architects and contractors. The study will look for recurring themes and patterns of miscommunication. It will also seek to identify internal and external influences to the process from both perspectives. Possible external factors include legal, financial, and contractual concerns. Factors inherent to the process itself could include our design culture, document preparation techniques, and budget constraints. It is perceived that technology and software availability could be a shared contributing factor impacting communications. The study will go on to examine alternative forms of communication, primarily the introduction of technology new to the landscape architect/contractor relationship, and the viability of their integration into the process. This would include, but not be limited to project modeling techniques, videos, and realistic graphic renderings.
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There is a national conversation going on about the need for healthier communities, for conquering childhood obesity, assuring food justice and planning for food security. How do Landscape Architects contribute their skills and activate their students in this conversation at the local level? One key to aligning education with local community building involves the commitment of faculty to participate outside the academy in local non-profit and public organizations. The Planning Department of San Luis Obispo, CA asked for ideas for the use of a city-owned 25-acre parcel of land that would benefit the community and serve as a reminder of the City's agricultural roots. This provided a unique opportunity for Cal Poly students to partner with local planners, educators and farmers. Through programming, students demonstrated critical thinking by adding a working organic farm, education center and food-processing hub to the site. The organizing structure of this project will provide fresh food for Farm to School Programs and the local Food Bank. A non-profit will manage the facility for the City. Students at Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo, CA designed the site and presented it to the community. It is currently on the City Council's agenda for approval in mid 2011.
Recovering Landscape collects a number of ..
The methodology with which landscape architects communicate their design ideas to clients has embraced new technology at every turn. Virtual tours, three dimensional vignettes, and literal graphic renderings allow clients to step into our designs, and experience the space. The opposite is true of communications to general and landscape contractors as they attempt to interpret and execute the design intent conveyed to the client. There has been little advancement in communication techniques since the days of Humphry Repton riding on horseback and throwing potato pieces to identify where trees were to be planted. Two dimensional drawings, schedules, details, and written specifications remain the primary tools utilized to transform an idea into reality. The shortcomings of this approach to clearly and fully communicate the design are seen in almost every project with the issuance of addendum and change orders. Clients incur additional costs, projects are delayed, and business relationships can become strained.