He ends with a defense of rooted cosmopolitanism
During the discussion on “When Peoples Meet: The Political and Social Significance of Race,” Dr. Harris framed the talk on an issue of submerged universalism in an anthology that is different from the New Negro. Also, Franz Boaz and Locke’s views on cosmopolitan civilization were used as a vehicle to discuss power as well as cultural contact and conflict.
Towards a Cosmopolitan Cosmopolitanism? | Political …
Yet even as Plato and Aristotle were writing, other Greeks wereissuing cosmopolitan challenges. Perhaps the most obvious challengescame from the traveling intellectuals who insisted on the contrastbetween the conventional ties of politics and the natural ties ofhumanity. Notice, for example, the way Plato has the Sophist Hippiasaddress the motley crew of Athenians and foreigners present at Callias'house in Plato's Protagoras (337c7-d3):
Some cosmopolitans developed their view into a political theoryabout international relations. The most radical of eighteenth-centurypolitical cosmopolitans was no doubt Anacharsis Cloots (Jean-Baptistedu Val-de-Grace, baron de Cloots, 1755-1794). Cloots advocated theabolition of all existing states and the establishment of a singleworld state under which all human individuals would be directlysubsumed. His arguments drew first of all on the general structure ofsocial contract theory. If it is in the general interest for everyoneto submit to the authority of a state that enforces laws that providesecurity, then this argument applies world-wide and justifies theestablishment of a world-wide “republic of unitedindividuals,” not a plurality of states that find themselves inthe state of nature vis-à-vis each other. Second, he argues thatsovereignty should reside with the people, and that the concept ofsovereignty itself, because it involves indivisibility, implies thatthere can be but one sovereign body in the world, namely, the humanrace as a whole (La république universelle ou adresse auxtyrannicides, 1792; Bases constitutionelles de larépublique du genre humain, 1793).
Cosmopolitanism Ethics In A World Of Strangers …
Socrates, too, it can be argued, was sensitive to this morecosmopolitan identification with human beings as such. At least asPlato characterizes him, Socrates avoids traditional politicalengagement as much as he can, in favor of an extraordinary career ofexamining himself and others, and he insists that these examinationsare both genuinely political (Gorg 521d6–8) and extended toall, Athenians and foreigners alike (Apol 23b4–6). Of course,Socrates chose not to travel widely, but this decision could well havebeen consistent with cosmopolitan ideals, for he may have thought thathis best bet for serving human beings generally lay in staying athome, on account, ironically, of Athens' superior freedom of speech(Gorg 461e1–3; cf. Apol 37c5–e2 and Meno80b4–7). Whether Socrates was self-consciously cosmopolitan in thisway or not, there is no doubt that his ideas accelerated thedevelopment of cosmopolitanism and that he was in later antiquityembraced as a citizen of the world.
Essay on Cosmopolitanism - 707 Words
A fuller exploration of positively committed philosophicalcosmopolitanism arrives only with the Socratizing and Cynic-influencedStoics of the third century CE. These Stoics are fond of saying thatthe cosmos is, as it were, a polis, because the cosmos is put inperfect order by law, which is right reason. They also embrace thenegative implication of their high standards: conventional poleis do not, strictly speaking, deserve the name. Butthe Stoics do not believe that living in agreement with the cosmos —as a citizen of the cosmos — requires maintaining critical distancefrom conventional poleis. Rather, as the traces of Chrysippus' OnLives make clear, the Stoics believe that goodness requiresserving other human beings as best one can,that serving all human beings equally well is impossible, and that thebest service one can give typically requires political engagement. Ofcourse, the Stoics recognize that political engagement will not bepossible for everyone, and that some people will best be able to helpother human beings as private teachers of virtue rather than aspoliticians. But in no case, the Stoics insist, is consideration ofpolitical engagement to be limited to one's own polis. The motivatingidea is, after all, to help human beings as such, and sometimes thebest way to do that is to serve as a teacher or as a political advisorin some foreign place. In this fashion, the Stoics introduce clear,practical content to their metaphor of the cosmopolis: a cosmopolitanconsiders moving away in order to serve, whereas a non-cosmopolitandoes not.
Kwame Anthony Appiah - Wikipedia
In addition to moral and political forms of cosmopolitanism, thereemerged an economic form of cosmopolitan theory. The freer tradeadvocated by eighteenth-century anti-mercantilists, especially AdamSmith, was developed further into the ideal of a global free market byDietrich Hermann Hegewisch (Kleingeld 2012). His ideal was a world inwhich tariffs and other restrictions on foreign trade are abolished, aworld in which the market, not the government, takes care of the needsof the people. Against mercantilism, he argued that it is moreadvantageous for everyone involved if a nation imports those goodswhich are more expensive to produce domestically, and that theabolition of protectionism would benefit everyone. If other stateswere to gain from their exports, they would reach a higher standard ofliving and become even better trading partners, because they couldthen import more, too. Moreover, on Hegewisch's view, after trade willhave been liberalized world-wide, the importance of nationalgovernments will diminish dramatically. As national governments aremostly focused on the national economy and defense, he argued, theirfuture role will be at most auxiliary. The freer the global marketbecomes, the more the role of the states will become negligible.