Here is your short essay on Ancient Rome
It started with the overthrowing of the kings who were ruling the empire at the end of the 6th BC. They were replaced by two magistrates, which were referred to as consuls. The privilege to rule was given to the patricians, wealthy men and land owners who were members of the aristocracy. The plebeians, who had also accumulated wealth, were included into the leadership of the country after a social conflict had ensued.
The 12 tables became the first written laws of the land. They formed the basis for living in Rome, guiding all the actions of the Romans. It was under these laws that justice was implemented. The senate ruled the towns and cities.
Internal conflicts were brought about by class differences and leadership. It was apparent that the ruling class was the richest. They used absolute power to rule the land. These consuls gave power to their kin and dictated by force what was to be done. Class differences brought conflicts that threatened to tear apart the land and its leadership. These occurred conflicts were among the upper class and the lower class political class.
Julius Caesar took over the leadership of the land during a tumultuous time. He was a very powerful leader, having fought and won many battles with neighboring empires. He was a tough king, entertaining no deceit from his members. He implemented severe punishments, including hanging and excommunication. He assassinated in 44 BC. The republic ended in the 27th BC with the reign of Augustus.
The empire was ruled under very distinct class divisions. The senators were the rulers and included the chief magistrates and military posts. The equities, also referred to as the equestrian class, consisted of the civil careers and the military (General books LLC, 2010, p.74). The lower class consisted of the junior ranked people in the army.
The senate was the center of administration in the empire. The consuls and the exconsuls were entitled to become senators by default. The wealthy and rich people of the land still held the position of leadership in the land. At the age of eighteen, the equestrian class became wealthy business men. It is at this age that they gained recognition as citizens. The emperor determines the age at which such people would receive such recognition of prosperity.
From the 2nd century BC, there were tribunals that were set up for crimes against the state. These crimes included treason, embezzlement of state funds and property, murder, adultery and electoral bribery. The punishment for such crimes was based on the class to which one belonged. The upper class of people was punished by being exiled whereas the lower class were either crucified or received a public beating, among other undesirable punishment methods.
The emperor Augustus changed the form of leadership in the state to an autocratic one. This better served the interests of the people better than the previous styles of leadership practiced by the other kings and emperors.
O. Religion in the Ancient Roman Empire
The religious beliefs of the early Roman Empire were based on many gods, goddesses and legends. These religious deities were symbolized by nature. It was not surprising to find people worshipping different gods, which controlled different aspects of the daily life of the ancient Romans. They borrowed heavily from the Greeks in the number of gods they had and the role that each god or goddess played in their lives.
Jupiter was the king of all gods. He was thought to be the one to throw thunderbolts to the earth whenever he was angered by people. The planet Jupiter was named after this god, suggesting the massive nature of his power over all other beings (Turcan, 2001). Juno is the mother goddess and the wife of Jupiter. She was considered to be the queen of all gods. She was ill-tempered and jealous of all other goddesses. Mercury was the messenger god, tasked with running errands for other gods. He wears winged sandals that enable him to move so fast. Venus was the goddess of beauty while Diana was the goddess of the hunt who protects the animals. She was thought to carry a bow and a quiver full of arrows. She was also the goddess of the moon and the brother of Apollo. Among the other gods are Minerva, Pluto, Vesta and Saturn. Pagan temples were also constructed in the ancient roman capital.
Ancient Rome consisted of vast acreage of land with numerous human and natural resources. The economy of the empire was primarily based on farming and trade (Adkins & Adkins, 2004 p.178). Their main products included grapes and olives. The major exports were olive oil and wine. Egypt and North Africa provided grain that was consumed and sold to other territories (Breyer, 2004, p. 12).
The industrial as well as manufacturing activities were smaller than the agricultural attributes. The largest of this were mining and stone quarrying. Manufacturing was done on a smaller scale having small shops whereas the mining industry was large scale, employing numerous people.
The economy of the ancient Roman Empire was based on small holdings and paid labor. Slaves got from conquests and foreign wars, provided the necessary cheap labor for the state (Hanson-Hardin, 201, p. 24).
Barter trade was also used before the use of the coinage system. Barter trade was used majorly for tax collection by the state. The coinage system came with the use of copper, brass, precious metals and bronze metals (Dunstan, 2010, p. 98).
Horses were used for transportation although they were quite expensive. The other pack animals were cheap but slow. Roads were constructed for such animals and not for wheels. They connected military posts and not markets. Trade was promoted by the coming up of the roman maritime trade in the 2nd century BC (Louis, 2007, p.77). This is because transport by sea was far much cheaper than by land. Ancient Rome had a market economy.
This paper has been able to explain the religious attributes of ancient Rome, their social stratification, the political outfits and economics as major areas of concern for this research. In brief, the research came up with the following items as the basis of life in the ancient roman society: The state was ruled by several kings in several evolutionary phases. There were social classes distinguished by wealth. Conquest was a common phenomenon for proof of success and acquiring slaves. They worshipped many gods and goddesses. Trade and agriculture were rife here and the location of this great state was good for its protection, trade and agriculture. In comparison to the present times a huge contrast appears.
Here is your short essay on Ancient Rome Shailesh Surolia
The city of Rome was considered to be the largest urban center in those days, with an average population of about one million people (Chrisp, 2003). Twenty percent of the population was under the immediate jurisdiction of Rome. The city was held in such high esteem because it was where everything began.
J. Social stratification
The Roman society was a largely hierarchical society. It consisted of overlapping status groups. These hierarchies determined a many things in the lives of ancient Romans. People were categorized into slaves, freedmen and freeborn citizens. The slaves occupied the lowest position, followed by the freedmen and then the freeborn citizens (Carcopino, 1956, p.52).
The freeborn Romans were determined by several aspects, a . Among the most important is their ancestry, which was expected to be purely Roman. They may also be identified through census ranks, honors and citizenship. Citizenship, in this case, is by birth only. Full citizens were given a host of rights and privileges. The non-citizens included the slaves and the visitors. They had different legal rights from the common citizens. The slaves for instance were considered to be property and had no rights whatsoever. They could be sold from one owner to another, their efforts used for the gain of their masters or owners. The freed slaves were a little different from the slaves in that they were given some form of recognition by the Romans. They possessed some rights and privileges. To some extent, they had almost the same status as any other common person in the ancient Roman Empire.
The ancient Roman society is a patriarchal society – the man is the head of the household at all times. He held very special powers and privileges over the other members of the family. He exercised a patron–client relationship with his family members. This patron–client relationship implicates that the patron is at all times at a superior position than the client. The patron is at liberty to have many clients.
K. Property based classes
Ancient Rome was also characterized by property-based classes. The accumulation of wealth has been a source of major differences the world over. A census conducted in Rome divided people into six categories based on their economic capability.
The senators were the richest people in the country. This class of people had large agricultural estates under their names. The sesterlii was the second in command. This class of people consisted of influential business people. The equities were third in line. They were the political class of the land. They were tasked with making laws and implementing them. The least of all was the proletarii who owned the least property of all. This category of persons had the least influence in the land, ranking very low in all matters.
The free born women in the land were considered to be citizens, although they had no right to vote in any election. In addition, they were not allowed to hold any political office. Marriages were conducted in a civil manner. The requirement for a Roman marriage was that both parties had to be proper citizens of Rome before the marriage could be recognized. The legal status of the mother was a determining factor to the legal rights and citizenship of her son. The son was considered to be a citizen of ancient Rome if her mother was a pure citizen of Rome.
Slaves were not citizens of this country. They were considered as property to their masters. Slaves were usually descendants of debtors and prisoners of war. The freedmen were freed slaves. The freed slaves were usually highly educated people providing the bulk of services to the civil sector. They had many of skills and were quite important in the service sector. They accumulated wealth through bribery and corruption.
M. The Freedmen
These were freed slaves. The freed slaves were usually highly educated people providing the bulk of services to the civil sector. They possessed many skills and became quite important in the service sector. They accumulated wealth through bribery and corruption.
N. Politics and Leadership
The ancient Roman Empire underwent three stages of leadership: the monarchy, the republic and finally the empire.
The country’s leadership was based on mythical stories of kings and emperors. These mythical stories have truth in them; they were based on facts. Among these kings were Romulus, Numa, Julius Ceasar. The kings were all ousted during the end of the 6th century bringing in a crop of new people to rule the kingdom. These people were referred to as consuls.
Bailey, C. (1907). The religion of ancient Rome. London: Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd. pp. 12, 34, 103.
This book focuses on the native religion of the early Rome with the assistance of Roman archeology. It attempts to create a present picture of how the initial Roman religion was in reference to several countries in Egypt and Italy as well as the Greek literature. It presents itself to be a difficult search as there is no guidance to do this. The author of this book, Cyril Bailey, M.A. is a tutor of the Balliol College, Oxford. (Bailey, 1907)