Beccaria essays on crimes and punishments
For those hedonistic few that disregarded laws to seek pleasure, Beccecaria defends that they are innocent until proven guilty, but first, crimes and punishment has to be clear.
Cesare beccaria essay on crimes and punishments 1764
can be transmitted by oral and anal intercourse between men)
1715 A song about two lesbians
1718 (organized crime and the mollies)
1720s & earlier
1721 (robber attacks a sodomite)
1721 "No harm, nothing but love"
1722 (ring of robbers/blackmailers)
1722 "My precious little Rogue"
1722 "so far from being ashamed, that he gloried in it"
1723 (picking up a post-boy)
1724 (satirical note on effeminate men)
1726 (hanged for sodomy)
1726 (hanged for sodomy)
1726 (sentenced to death, but reprieved)
1726 (hanged for sodomy)
1726 (a molly-house keeper is acquitted)
1726 (exposé of gay cruising grounds and clubs)
1726 (to castrate sodomites)
1726 (complaining that sodomites are ruining their trade)
1726 (caught by an undercover police agent)
1726 (who defended the right to his own body)
1726 (for keeping a molly house)
1727 (thief-taker and molly)
1728 (highway robber infiltrates a molly house)
1729 (describes mock birth in a molly house)
1729 (Review of laws against homosexuality in antiquity)
1730 (for raping a boy)
1730 (for soliciting)
1730 (for blackmail and robbery)
1730 (for having sex together in St Paul's Cathedral)
1731 William Pulteney's attack on John, Lord Hervey
1732 (a drag queen)
1732 Satire on the lesbian "Myra"
1733 (castration proposed as punishment for sodomy)
* * *Marjorie Bowen, William Hogarth: The Cockney's Mirror (London: Methuen, 1936).This study on Hogarth "is divided into four parts; the first part gives the background of William Hogarth's life and pictures, the second recounts his career and character and his attitude to his own genius, the third gives the stories, actors (real or imagined) of the principal pictures and prints, and the fourth describes and analyses the work from the point of view of aesthetics."ONLINE ARTICLES AND EXHIBITIONS ON WILLIAM HOGARTHClick on the area you are interested in:Online Biographies of William HogarthOnline Essays on HogarthOnline Exhibitions and Reviews of Museum ExhibitionsBook ReviewsCourse Descriptions, Lecture Resources, and some other Educational SitesMiscellaneousOther Areas of Interest in Hogarth ONLINE BIOGRAPHIES OF WILLIAM HOGARTH:Dale Keiger, "A Scholar's Progress", Johns Hopkins Magazine, November 2000.
Essay on crimes and punishments - Leading …
Early opponents of capital punishment also argued that inflicting death was not necessary to control crime and properly punish wrongdoers. Instead, alternative punishmentsuch as imprisonmentcould effectively isolate criminals from the community, deter other potential offenders from committing offenses, and express the community's condemnation of those who break its laws. In his Beccaria asserted that the certainty of punishment, rather than its severity, was a more effective deterrent.
Essay on crimes and punishments Matai August 26, 2016
The torture of a criminal, during the course of his trial, is a cruelty, consecrated by custom in most nations. It is used with an intent either to make him confess his crime, or explain some contradictions, into which he had been led during his examination; or discover his accomplices; or for some kind of metaphysical and incomprehensible purgation of infamy; or, finally, in order to discover other crimes, of which he is not accused, but of which he may be guilty.
No man can be judged a criminal until he be found guilty; nor can society take from him the public protection, until it have been proved that he has violated the conditions on which it was granted. What right, then, but that of power, can authorise the punishment of a citizen, so long as there remains any doubt of his guilt? The dilemma is frequent. Either he is guilty, or not guilty. If guilty, he should only suffer the punishment ordained by the laws, and torture becomes useless, as his confession is unnecessary. If he be not guilty, you torture the innocent; for, in the eye of the law, every man is innocent, whose crime has not been proved. Besides, it is confounding all relations, to expect that a man should be both the accuser and accused; and that pain should be the test of truth, as if truth resided in the muscles and fibres of a wretch in torture. By this method, the robust will escape, and the feeble be condemned. These are the inconveniencies of this pretended test of truth, worthy only of a cannibal; and which the Romans, in many respects barbarous, and whose savage virtue has been too much admired, reserved for the slaves alone.
What is the political intention of punishments? To terrify, and to be an example to others. Is this intention answered, by thus privately torturing the guilty and the innocent? It is doubtless of importance, that no crime should remain unpunished; but it is useless to make a public example of the author of a crime hid in darkness. A crime already committed, and for which there can be no remedy, can only be punished by a political society, with an intention that no hopes of impunity should induce others to commit the same. If it be true, that the number of those, who, from fear or virtue, respect the laws, is greater than of those by whom they are violated, the risk of torturing an innocent person is greater, as there is a greater probability that, cæteris paribus, an individual hath observed, than that he hath infringed the laws.
There is another ridiculous motive for torture, namely, to purge a man from infamy. Ought such an abuse to be tolerated in the eighteenth century? Can pain, which is a sensation, have any connection with a moral sentiment, a matter of opinion? Perhaps the rack may be considered as a refiner’s furnace.
Essay on crimes and punishments - Icumsa
Opponents of capital punishment maintain that these studies refute the argument that the death penalty deters crime. Many capital punishment opponents consider the deterrence argument fully negated and no longer part of the debate. However, supporters of the death penalty dispute that interpretation of the statistical analyses of deterrent effect. Capital punishment advocates note that because the death penalty is reserved for the most aggravated murders, the deterrent effect of capital punishment on such crimes may not be apparent in data on homicide rates in general. Supporters also urge that the conflicting results of various studies indicate that the deterrent effect of the death penalty cannot not be proven or disproven with any certainty. They maintain that in the absence of conclusive proof that the threat of execution might not save some people from being killed, capital punishment should be retained.