(Holloway, 2013) 2. Sleep deprivation affects the body as a whole....

 Indeed, there are more nightmarish side effects to sleep deprivation.

This paper should make a strong argument on sleep deprivation.

And they won't recognize other people as happy, either. A positive look on someone's face can appear neutral to a sleep-deprived person, and neutral look is often interpreted as a negative look, Dinges said. The sleep-deprived brain may not be as capable of detecting positive emotions as a more rested brain, he said.

This paper should include two or three causes, and then the one effect being sleep deprivation.

Explain the results of the sleep deprivation assessment.

Sleep deprivation is a commonplace occurrence in modern culture. Every day there seems to be twice as much work and half as much time to complete it in. This results in either extended periods of wakefulness or a decrease in sleep over an extended period of time. While some people may like to believe that they can train their bodies to not require as much sleep as they once did this belief is false . Sleep is needed to regenerate certain parts of the body, especially the brain, so that it may continue to function optimally. After periods of extended wakefulness or reduced sleep neurons may begin to malfunction, visibly effecting a person's behavior. Some organs, such as muscles, are able to regenerate even when a person is not sleeping so long as they are resting. This could involve lying awake but relaxed within a quite environment. Even though cognitive functions might not seem necessary in this scenario the brain, especially the cerebral cortex, is not able to rest but rather remains semi-alert in a state of "quiet readiness" . Certain stages of sleep are needed for the regeneration of neurons within the cerebral cortex while other stages of sleep seem to be used for forming new memories and generating new synaptic connections. The effects of sleep deprivation on behavior have been tested with relation to the presence of activity in different sections of the cerebral cortex.

To understand sleep deprivation, you need to first understand circadian rhythms.

Disruptions in circadian rhythms and sleep deprivation pose several hazards to humans.

For this essay, describe how circadian rhythms are associated with sleep deprivation.

Unfortunately, those few hours could have prevented sleep deprivation.

I’ve read two articles that deal with the issue of sleep deprivation.

In the first few months of life there is little in the way of a discernable sleep pattern. This doesn’t emerge until about 20 weeks when the NREM/REM cycle appears. In the first few months the infant often goes straight into REM from the outset and this REM is often restless with lots of facial movements and unlike in later life arms and legs may move too.

Total sleep time drops to about 13 to 14 hours a day and the ultradian sleep cycle takes about one hour (compared to the 90 minutes later in life). The developing child remains awake most of the day (from 10am
until 8pm) perhaps with one nap during that time.

Total sleep time is now 9 to 10 hours with an adult pattern of 75% NREM and 25% REM sleep. The bulk of NREM occurs in the first half of the night. The ultradian cycle is now extended to 70 minutes. Dement (1999) describes the sleep pattern at this age as ‘ideal.’ The child typically has plenty of energy during the day and can nod off quickly into deep, uninterrupted sleep waking the following morning totally refreshed!

Ideally the child should still be spending 9 to 10 hours asleep but for the first time the pattern is frequently disrupted due o late nights, schooling etc. Sex and growth hormones are released for the first time and the
increasingly sexual nature of dreams can result in wet dreams.

Again the body still requires as much sleep as early teens but this is rare at this age. Most people this age are permanently sleep deprived.

Environmental factors such as babies, snoring, work patterns and anxieties keep us awake.

Sleep time continues to decrease and people in this age group experience more tiredness. Amount of deep sleep, especially stage 4 sleep decreases.

Chronic sleep deprivation is less than five hours nightly.

deprived of REM or deprived of NREM sleep only.

Dement (1960) deprived volunteers of either REM or NREM sleep and observed the consequences. He found that REM deprivation was most dramatic with participants becoming more aggressive and having very poor concentration. He also reported REM rebound effects, in which participants would try and catch up on lost REM sleep. For example going straight into REM when allowed to go back to sleep. By the seventh night Dement reported that participants were averaging 26 attempts per night to enter REM. After the procedure when they were allowed an uninterrupted night’s sleep they spent much longer in REM. This is similar to the results reported following the Randy Gardner study and again reinforces the apparent importance of REM sleep.

In practice partial sleep deprivation is not possible over any period of time since participants need to be woken so often it quickly deteriorates into total sleep deprivation.

Overall evaluation of animal deprivation studies

With animal studies there are clearly issues of generalising to humans.
The animal studies are particularly cruel since unlike humans the animals have no idea that the experiment will eventually end!

Conclusions on sleep function (courtesy of Dwyer and Charles).
The evolutionary theories of sleep are unable to explain why sleep deprivation has such adverse effects whereas theory restoration can. However, it is clear that sleep is essential for survival and this is in agreement with the evolutionary theory’s adaptive value of sleep. Modern ideas assume that restoration does in itself serve an adaptive function so both evolutionary and restoration theories may be relevant. Furthermore, sleep may serve other useful purposes as yet not considered. One of these could be to allow us to dream.

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior by S.L

A feeling of tightness around the head.

Still irritable and confused and may also become delusional.

Person becomes depersonalised with a loss of self identity. This is referred to as ‘sleep deprivation psychosis.’